Enhanced links are provided by Diverse Kegg pathway analysis of GWAS and other networks

Ongoing clinical trials ClinicalTrials.Gov Centers for disease control and prevention   NCBI Biosystems Google Flu trends KATZELAB Wikipedia

Host proteins used by the influenza virus during its life cycle.

  • HA = hemagglutinin
  • NA = neuraminidase
  • NP = nucleoprotein M1 and M2 = Matrix proteins
  • NS1 and also NEP (different reading frames from the same RNA).
  • PA = RNA polymerase.
  • PB1 = RNA polymerase and PB1-F2 (different reading frame from the same RNA)
  • PB2 = RNA polymerase.

If you know of other interactions, (or corrections) please with Pubmed ID, gene symbol/accession number and viral interacting protein. Thank you.

  1. The virus binds preferentially to alpha2,3- and alpha2,6-linked N-acetyl neuraminic acid bonded to a carbohydrate moiety of a glycoprotein or glycolipid. Meng et al, 2010 Many host receptors contain such moeties PubChem Sialic acids
  2. The asian strain hemagglutinin binds to sialic acid a major component of airway receptors Chua and Chai, 2012.
    1. The virus may also bind to sialic acid residues on other pathogens enabling cooperativity between pathogens: for example: Capsular sialic acid of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 binds to swine influenza virus Wang et al, 2013
  3. 6'-sialyl(N-acetyllactosamine) binds to H1 and H3 viruses Gambaryan et al, 1997
  4. Viruses with A/NWS/33 hemagglutinin also bind to alpha2,8-linked sialic acid Wu and Air, 2004.
  5. The influenza C virus hemagglutinin-esterase is a membrane-bound glycoprotein that binds specifically to 9-O-acetylated sialic acids Klein et al, 19
  6. 17-beta oestradiol protects females from viral pathogenesis by suppressing inflammation, acting via ESR1 Robinson et al, 2011
  7. A2M alpha-2-macroglobulin neutralises the virus in serum Ryan-Poirier and Kawaoka, 1993 component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  8. AATK apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  9. ABCB1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 1: Cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein are resistant to infection Raviv et al, 2000
  10. ABCB10 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 10: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010 .............. ATP Cassette database
  11. ABCC6 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 6 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  12. ABCF1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F (GCN20), member 1: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  13. ABL1 ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase:Viral NS1 proteins from avian influenza viruses inhibit ABL1 Hrincius et al, 2015
  14. ABLIM1 actin-binding LIM protein 1: binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  15. ACACA Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007 ACACA siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  16. ACAP2 ArfGAP with coiled-coil, ankyrin repeat and PH domains 2 : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  17. ACE angiotensin converting enzyme ACE-transfected fibroblasts were more efficient than wild-type cells in trimming the carboxyl extensions of influenza-derived peptides into MHC class I-presented peptides recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes Eisenlohr et al, 1992
  18. ACE2 angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 : ACE2 cleavage regulated by influenza neuraminidase Liu et al, 2014
  19. Acetyl coenzyme A: binds to viral PB2 protein Hatakeyama et al, 2014
  20. ACOT9 acyl-CoA thioesterase 9: binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  21. ACOT13 acyl-CoA thioesterase 13 : binds to the nucleoprotein from a swine and human influenza virus Generous et al, 2014
  22. ACRC acidic repeat containing : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  23. Acrolein and glutaraldehyde have antiviral properties Bachrach et al, 1971
  24. ACTB actin, beta interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  25. ACTC1 actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1 : Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  26. ACTN4 Actinin 4: Interacts with the viral nucleoprotein Sharma et al, 2014
  27. ACVR1C activin A receptor, type IC: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  28. ACVR2A : Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  29. ADA adenosine deaminase : Viral infection induces 170-fold increase in ADA activity and a 400-fold increase in Xanthine oxidase activity in alveolar fluid , a system respondible for free radical generation and toxicity Akaike et al, 1990
  30. ADAM20 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 20: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  31. ADAMTS2 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  32. ADAMTSL4 ADAMTS-like 4 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  33. ADAP1 ArfGAP with dual PH domains 1 (Ex CENTA1) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  34. ADAR1 adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific binds to NS1 Ngamurulert et al, 2009
  35. ADCK4 aarF domain containing kinase 4: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  36. ADORA1 adenosine A1 receptor : bronchoalveolar epithelial ADORA1 activated in influenza A virus-infected mice Aeffner et al, 2014.
  37. ADRA1B adrenergic, alpha-1B-, receptor: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  38. ADRBK2 adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 2: Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  39. AFF2 AF4/FMR2 family, member 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  40. AGAP4 ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 4 (Ex CTGLF1) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  41. AGER advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor: Knockout mice are less sensitive to viral mortality and showed an improved viral clearance and enhanced cellular T cell response and activation of neutrophils van Zoelen et al, 2009.
  42. AGFG1 ArfGAP with FG repeats 1 ( HIV-1 Rev binding protein) binds to the nuclear export protein Eisfeld et al, 2011
  43. AGK acylglycerol kinase: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  44. AGTRAP angiotensin II receptor-associated protein: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  45. AHCYL1 adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  46. AHR aryl-hydrocarbon receptor activation lowers dendritic cell function during infection Jin et al, 2010 AHR binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009
  47. AHSG alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  48. AICDA activation-induced cytidine deaminase: Plays a role in viral infection Harada et al, 2003
  49. AIF1 allograft inflammatory factor 1 : component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  50. AIFM1 apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 1 component of the viral polymerase Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  51. AIG1 androgen-induced 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  52. AIMP1 aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 1: (SCYE1) component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  53. AIMP2 aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2 : Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  54. AKAP8L A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8-like: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  55. AKAP10 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 10: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  56. AKAP13 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 13: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  57. AKT1 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  58. AKTIP AKT interacting protein : siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  59. ALDH2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (mitochondrial) : Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  60. ALOX5 arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  61. ALPK2 alpha-kinase 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  62. ALYREF – Aly/REF export factor: interacts with the viral nucleoprotein Balasubramaniam et al, 2013
  63. AMN amnionless homolog (mouse): siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  64. ANAPC2 anaphase promoting complex subunit 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  65. ANKK1 ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  66. ANKRD7 ankyrin repeat domain 7 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  67. ANKS1A ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain containing 1A: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  68. ANP32A acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member A: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011 regulates influenza virus RNA synthesis from cRNA Sugiyama et al, 2015.
  69. ANP32B acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member B: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  70. ANPEP alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  71. ANXA1 annexin A1: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  72. ANXA2 annexin A2: incorporated into the virus particles, playing a role in plasminogen activation LeBouder et al, 2008
  73. ANXA4 annexin A4: Virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  74. ANXA5 annexin A5: Virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  75. ANXA6 annexin A6 : Interacts with the viral M2 protein Ma et al, 2011
  76. AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  77. APAF1 apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 The viral M1 protein binds to Hsp70, resulting in reduced interaction between Hsp70 and Apaf-1 Halder et al, 2011
  78. AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit : siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  79. APBB1IP amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 interacting protein : siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  80. APC adenomatous polyposis coli : binds to PB1 Shapira et al, 2009
  81. APC2 adenomatosis polyposis coli 2: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  82. APCS amyloid P component, serum inhibits viral infection via hemagglutinin binding Horváth et al, 2001
  83. API5 apoptosis inhibitor 5 : the viral nucleoprotein interacts with and suppresses the expression of API5, a host antiapoptotic protein that antagonizes E2F1-dependent apoptosis Mayank et al, 2015.
  84. APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II : component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  85. APOE apolipoprotein E : component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  86. APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2 component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  87. APP amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (peptidase nexin-II, Alzheimer disease) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010 Beta-amyloid has antiviral properties White et al, 2014
  88. AQP4 aquaporin 4 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  89. AR androgen receptor The polymerase PB1-contact site on Ebp1 (PA2G4) overlaps with the interaction site with ErbB3 (epidermal receptor tyrosine kinase), androgen receptor (AR) and retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) Honda et al, 2007
  90. ARAF v-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  91. ARCN1 archain 1: (COPD) Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  92. NAA10 N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 10, NatA catalytic subunit(ARD1) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  93. ARHGAP21 – Rho GTPase activating protein 21 : ARHGAP21- and Cdc42-based signaling regulate neuraminidase transport to the cell surface Wang et al 2012
  94. ARHGEF2 Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2 : Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011 also involved in sensing of foreign RNA by RIG-I–like receptors Chiang et al, 2013
  95. ARID1B AT rich interactive domain 1B (SWI1-like): facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  96. ARNT aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator: binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009
  97. ARSA arylsulfatase A : Sulfatide ,synthesised by ceramide galactosyltransferase (UGT8) and cerebroside sulfotransferase (GAL3ST1), and degraded by arylsulfatase A enhances viral replication , as demonstrated by ARSA overexpression or GAL3ST1 knockdown Takahashi et al, 2008
  98. ARTN artemin: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  99. ARRB1 arrestin, beta 1 regulates the viral polymerase Bortz et al, 2011.
  100. ASCL3 achaete-scute complex homolog 3 (Drosophila) : Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  101. ASPA aspartoacylase: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  102. ATCAY ataxia, cerebellar, Cayman type: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  103. ATF2 activating transcription factor 2 binds to PB2,NS1,PB1 Shapira et al, 2009
  104. ATG5 ATG5 autophagy related 5 homolog (S. cerevisiae) involved in viral-induced autophagy Law et al, 2010
  105. ATM ataxia telangiectasia mutated: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  106. ATP1A2 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 2 polypeptide: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  107. ATP1B1 Na+/K+ transporting, beta 1 polypeptide binds to the viral M2 protein Mi et al, 2010
  108. ATP2C1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  109. ATP5C1 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  110. ATP5L ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit G: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  111. ATP6AP1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal accessory protein 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  112. ATP6AP2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal accessory protein 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 , Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  113. ATP6V0B ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 21kDa, V0 subunit b: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  114. ATP6V0C ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 16kDa, V0 subunit c: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  115. ATP6V0D1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38kDa, V0 subunit d1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  116. ATP6V1A ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 70kDa, V1 subunit A: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  117. ATP6V1B2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 56/58kDa, V1 subunit B2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  118. ATXN10 ataxin 10 binds to the M2 protein Li et al, 2009
  119. AXIN1 axin 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  120. B2M beta-2-microglobulin:@ siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  121. B3GNT7 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 7: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  122. BACH1 BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  123. BACH2 BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  124. BAG3 BCL2-associated athanogene 3: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  125. BAG5 BCL2-associated athanogene 5: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  126. BAIAP2 BAI1-associated protein 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  127. BAIAP3 BAI1-associated protein 3: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  128. BANP BTG3 associated nuclear protein binds to viral NS1,PB1,PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  129. BARHL2 BarH-like homeobox 2 : siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  130. BAX BCL2-associated X protein knockout reduces viral-induced apoptosis and reduces viral replication McLean et al, 2009
  131. BCAP29 B-cell receptor-associated protein 29: binds to viral PA protein Shapira et al, 2009
  132. BCL2 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 p38mapk (MAPK14) phosphorylates Bcl-2, reducing viral replication Nencioni et al, 2009 : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  133. BCL2L11 BCL2-like 11 (apoptosis facilitator) (bim) involved in CD8 T cell responses to the virus Sabbagh et al, 2006
  134. BCL2L2 BCL2-like 2: Repressed by infection Guan et al, 2012
  135. BCL3 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 : Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  136. BCL10 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 : binds to PB2,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  137. BDNF brain derived neurotrophic factor: expression decreased decreased in the hippocampus of infected mice Jurgens et al, 2012
  138. BECN1 beclin 1, autophagy related siRNA knockdown reduces extracellular viral yield Zhou et al, 2009
  139. BHLHE40 basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40 (Ex BHLHB2) binds to viral PB1,PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  140. BIK BCL2-interacting killer: Bik mediated caspase activation involved in cleavage of viral proteins Mebratu et al, 2015.
  141. BIRC3 baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3: mice deficient in BIRC3 (ciap-2) exhibit increased susceptibility and mortality to influenza A virus infection Rodrigue-Gervais et al, 2014.
  142. BLZF1 basic leucine zipper nuclear factor 1 : binds to viral PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  143. BMPR1B bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IB : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  144. BMPR2 bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase) : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  145. BPTF bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  146. BRD8 bromodomain containing 8: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  147. BRPF1 bromodomain and PHD finger containing, 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  148. BRSK1 BR serine/threonine kinase 1: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  149. BRWD3 bromodomain and WD repeat domain containing 3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  150. BST2 bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (tetherin) modifies viral budding Yondola et al, 2011
  151. BTAF1 RNA polymerase II, B-TFIID transcription factor-associated, 170kDa (Mot1 homolog, S. cerevisiae): Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  152. BTBD9 BTB (POZ) domain containing 9 : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  153. BZRAP1 benzodiazapine receptor (peripheral) associated protein 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 201C3 complement component 3 Binds to and neutralises the virus Beebe et al, 1983
  154. C3 complement component 3 Involved in viral neutralisation Beebe et al, 1983
  155. C4A complement component 4A (Rodgers blood group) Binds to and neutralises the virus Beebe et al, 1983
  156. C4B complement component 4B (Chido blood group) Binds to and neutralises the virus Beebe et al, 1983
  157. C5 complement component 5: activated in the airway in response to influenza illness Bjornson et al, 1991.
  158. C1orf94 chromosome 1 open reading frame 94 binds to viral PB2 protein Shapira et al, 2009
  159. C1orf110 (Ex MGC48998) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  160. C1orf159 chromosome 1 open reading frame 159 Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  161. C2orf42 chromosome 2 open reading frame 42: Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  162. CALCOCO1 calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 1 : Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  163. CNRIP1 cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1: (Ex C2orf32) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  164. TAMM41 TAM41, mitochondrial translocator assembly and maintenance protein, homolog (S. cerevisiae) (Ex C3orf31) siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  165. C4orf32 chromosome 4 open reading frame 32 Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  166. C5orf38 chromosome 5 open reading frame 38 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  167. C7orf50 chromosome 7 open reading frame 50 binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  168. C9orf167 chromosome 9 open reading frame 167 : Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  169. C10orf35 chromosome 10 open reading frame 35: binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  170. C10orf57 chromosome 10 open reading frame 57: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  171. C10orf96 chromosome 10 open reading frame 96: binds to viral PB2 protein C16orf45
    Shapira et al, 2009
  172. C14orf28 : chromosome 14 open reading frame 28 (dopamine receptor interacting protein ) Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  173. C14orf 166 chromosome 14 open reading frame 166 (CGI-99) interacts with the PA subunit of the viral polymerase Huarte et al, 2001
  174. TRMT61A tRNA methyltransferase 61 homolog A (S. cerevisiae) (Ex C14orf172) siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  175. C16orf45 chromosome 16 open reading frame 45: binds to viral NP protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  176. C16orf72 chromosome 16 open reading frame 72 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  177. C19orf20 chromosome 19 open reading frame 20siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  178. C20orf111 chromosome 20 open reading frame 111 :Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  179. C21orf7 chromosome 21 open reading frame 7 :siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  180. C21orf33 chromosome 21 open reading frame 33: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  181. C1QA complement component 1, q subcomponent, A chain: C1Q interacts with the viral M1 protein Zhang et al, 2009
  182. C1QB C1Q interacts with the viral M1 protein Zhang et al, 2009
  183. C1QC C1Q interacts with the viral M1 protein Zhang et al, 2009
  184. CA13 carbonic anhydrase XIII: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  185. CABC1 chaperone, ABC1 activity of bc1 complex homolog (S. pombe) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  186. CACNG4 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4:Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  187. CAD carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  188. CALCOCO1 calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 1 binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2010
  189. CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta inhibition antagonises viral replication König et al, 2010
  190. CAMP cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide Leukotriene b4 exerts antiviral effects by increasing the relase of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin (CAMP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (RNASE2): Effects mediated via LTB4R : Gaudreault and Gosselin , 2008 Posseses antiviral activity Barlow et al, 2011
  191. CANT1 calcium activated nucleotidase 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  192. CANX calnexin involved in hemagglutinin folding Chen et al, 1995
  193. CAPN6 calpain 6 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  194. CAPRIN1 cell cycle associated protein 1 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  195. CASP1 caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (interleukin 1, beta, convertase): The influenza immune response and mortality is reduced in Nlrp3, Pycard, or caspase-1 knockout mice Allen et al, 2009 component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  196. CASP3 caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase: CASP3 binds to PB2,NP Shapira et al, 2009 necessary for viral propagation Wurzer et al, 2003
  197. CASP8 caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase binds to M1 Zhirnov et al, 2002
  198. CASP9 caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase binds to M1 Zhirnov et al, 2002
  199. CASP10 caspase 10, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase: activated in in H5N1 virus-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages Ekchariyawat et al, 2012
  200. CAV1 caveolin 1, caveolae protein, 22kDa modifies viral multiplication Sun et al, 2010
  201. CBLL1 Cas-Br-M (murine) ecotropic retroviral transforming sequence-like 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  202. CBS cystathionine-beta-synthase binds to viral M2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  203. CCDC33 coiled-coil domain containing 33: binds to viral PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  204. CCL2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1) Part of the cytokine storm induced by infection , particularly by the H1N1 strain Us, 2008
  205. CCL3 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (Mip-1 alpha) Part of the cytokine storm induced by infection , particularly by the H1N1 strain Us, 2008
  206. CCL5 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (RANTES) Part of the cytokine storm induced by infection , particularly by the H1N1 strain Us, 2008
  207. CCL13 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  208. CCL19 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19: Regulates immunity to the virus Rangel-Moreno et al, 2007
  209. CCL21 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21: Regulates immunity to the virus Rangel-Moreno et al, 2007
  210. CCND1 Downregulated by H5N1 infection in chicken or canine cell lines Balasubramaniam et al, 2011
  211. CCND2 Downregulated by H5N1 infection in chicken or canine cell lines Balasubramaniam et al, 2011
  212. CCND3 Downregulated by H5N1 infection in chicken or canine cell lines Balasubramaniam et al, 2011
  213. CCNB3 cyclin B3: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  214. CCNT1 Cyclin T1 interacts with the viral polymerase Zhang et al, 2010
  215. CCR2 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2:Plays a role in the immune response to the virus Wareing et al, 2007
  216. CCR5 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5: mediates the migration of T cells toward virus infected cells.
  217. CCRK cell cycle related kinase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  218. CCT2 chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 2 (beta) associates with viral polymerase subunit PB2 Fislová et al, 2010
  219. CCT8 chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 8 (theta): Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  220. CD3EAP CD3e molecule, epsilon associated protein : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  221. CD9 CD9 molecule: virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  222. CD14 CD14 molecule: required for viral induced cytokine production Pauligk et al, 2004
  223. CD27 CD27 molecule: cell responses to influenza virus impaired in knockout mice Hendriks et al, 2000
  224. CD40 TNF receptor superfamily member 5: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  225. CD40LG CD40 ligand: modulates immune response and enhances protection against influenza virus Hashem et al, 2014.
  226. CD44 CD44 molecule (Indian blood group): component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  227. CD47 CD47 molecule siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  228. CD48 CD48 molecule: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  229. CD55 CD55 polymorphisms are associated with severe A(H1N1)pdm09 infection: Zhou et al, 2012
  230. CD58 CD58 molecule (LFA-3): siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  231. CD59 CD59 molecule, complement regulatory protein modulates the innate and adaptive immune responses to the virus via complement-dependent and -independent mechanisms Longhi et al, 2007
  232. CD69 C-type lectin domain family 2, member C; CD69 antigen (p60, early T-cell activation antigen);: alphaVgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes upregulate expression of IL2RA (CD25) and CD69 and produce IFN-gamma following influenza infection Jameson et al, 2010
  233. CD81 CD81 molecule: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  234. CD97 CD97 molecule: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  235. CD163 CD163 molecule: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  236. CD200 expression decreased decreased in the hippocampus of infected mice Jurgens et al, 2012
  237. CD207 CD207 molecule, langerin: Viral receptor in Lec2 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells Ng et al, 2015
  238. CD209 CD209 molecule (DC-sign) captures the virus on dendritic cells Gonzalez et al, 2010
  239. CD274 CD274 molecule: knockout in natural kiler T cells improves the course of influenza A infection in mice Maazi et al, 2013
  240. CD276 CD276 molecule: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  241. CDC42 – cell division cycle 42: ARHGAP21- and Cdc42-based signaling regulate neuraminidase transport to the cell surface Wang et al 2012
  242. CDC42BPA CDC42 binding protein kinase alpha (DMPK-like): Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  243. CDC42BPB CDC42 binding protein kinase beta (DMPK-like): Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  244. CDC42EP4 CDC42 effector protein (Rho GTPase binding) 4: binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  245. CDK4 cyclin-dependent kinase 4Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  246. CDK9 cyclin-dependent kinase 9 interacts with the viral polymerase Zhang et al, 2010
  247. CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase 10 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  248. CDKL5 cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  249. CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1): Upregulated via a bystander effect in the lungs of infected mice (via TP53) Technau-Ihling et al, 2001
  250. CDKN1B cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1) inhibition reduces viral titre Karlas et al, 2010
  251. CDKN2C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4): binds to NS2 Shapira et al, 2009
  252. CDS2 CDP-diacylglycerol synthase (phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase) 2: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  253. CEACAM6 carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (non-specific cross reacting antigen) Gaur et al, 2012
  254. CEP70 centrosomal protein 70kDa: binds to viral NP,PB1 and PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  255. CEP152 centrosomal protein 152kDa : Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  256. CEBPB CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  257. CEL carboxyl ester lipase (bile salt-stimulated lipase): siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  258. CERS4 ceramide synthase 4 (Ex LASS4): siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  259. CFL1 cofilin 1 (non-muscle) virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  260. CFLAR CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010 CFLAR binds to PB2,NP Shapira et al, 2009
  261. CFTR cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ATP-binding cassette sub-family C, member 7): Reduced CFTR expression modulates the innate immune response to influenza and alters disease pathogenesis Aeffner et al, 2013
  262. CH25H cholesterol 25-hydroxylase: 25-hydroxycholesterol has antiviral effects against various viruses (influenza, HSV-1, MCMV) Blanc et al, 2013
  263. CHAF1A chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (p150) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  264. CHCHD4 coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 4: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  265. CHD3 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 3: binds to viral NS2 Hu et al, 2014
  266. CHD6 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 6 inhibits viral replication Alfonso et al, 2011
  267. CHM choroideremia (Rab escort protein 1) : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  268. CHMP1B chromatin modifying protein 1B: binds to viral PA protein Shapira et al, 2009
  269. CHMP6 chromatin modifying protein 6: binds to viral PA protein Shapira et al, 2009
  270. Cholesterol The M2 protein binds to cholesterol Schroeder et al, 2005 25-hydroxycholesterol has antiviral effects against various viruses (influenza, HSV-1, MCMV) Blanc et al, 2013
  271. Chromatin viral ribonucleoprotein complexes bind to chromatin (export controlled by RCC1 and XPO1 (crm1) Chase et al, 2011
  272. CHRM1 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  273. CHST5 carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 5: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 201
  274. CHUK conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010 Binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009
  275. CIAO1 cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly 1 [:Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  276. CIITA class II, major histocompatibility complex, transactivator mediates MHC class II expression: infection inhibiys IFN-gamma-induced up-regulation of HLA-DRalpha mRNA and the IFN-gamma induction of CIITA
  277. CIT citron (rho-interacting, serine/threonine kinase 21): Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  278. CKAP5 cytoskeleton associated protein 5 : binds to the nucleoprotein from a swine and human influenza virus Generous et al, 2014
  279. CLEC4M C-type lectin domain family 4, member M (L-SIGN) Viral receptor Londrigan et al, 2011
  280. CLEC10A C-type lectin domain family 10, member A Viral receptor Upham et al, 2010
  281. CLIC4 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  282. CLIP1 CAP-GLY domain containing linker protein 1 Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  283. CLK1 CDC-like kinase 1siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  284. CLNS1A chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  285. CLSTN3 calsyntenin 3 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 201
  286. CLTA binds to the viral nucleoprotein (Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2010 Aug;26(8):1037-41. Chinese.)
  287. CLTC clathrin, heavy chain (Hc) siRNA knockdown decreases viral entry Wang and Jiang ,2009
  288. CLU Clusterin binds to viral nucleoprotein Tripathi et al, 2013
  289. CMTM5 CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 5: binds to viral PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  290. CNGB1 cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta 1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  291. CNNM1 cyclin M1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  292. CNP (viral) 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase: Purified virions of several RNA viruses, including influenza show 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase activity Rosenbergová and Pristasová , 1991
  293. CNR1 cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain): Deletion enhances inflammatory responses to viral infection Buchweitz et al, 2008
  294. CNR2 cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage): Deletion enhances inflammatory responses to viral infection Buchweitz et al, 2008
  295. COL2A1 collagen, type II, alpha 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  296. COL4A3BP collagen, type IV, alpha 3 (Goodpasture antigen) binding protein binds to viral HA protein(s) Shapira et al, 200COG5 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  297. COLEC11 collectin sub-family member 11 an antimicrobial protein that decreases infection Hansen et al, 2010
  298. COPA coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  299. COPB1 coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  300. COPB2 coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 2 (beta prime): siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  301. ARCN1 (COPD) siRNA knockdown reduces numbers of infectious viruses Karlas et al, 2010
  302. COPE coatomer protein complex, subunit epsilon : siRNA knockdown reduces numbers of infectious viruses Karlas et al, 2010
  303. COPG coatomer protein complex, subunit gamma: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  304. COPG2 coatomer protein complex, subunit gamma 2: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  305. COPS5 COP9 constitutive photomorphogenic homolog subunit 5: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  306. COX5A cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  307. COX6A1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIa polypeptide 1: regulates viral replication Hao et al, 2008
  308. CP ceruloplasmin inhibits viral replication Tomas et al, 1982
  309. CPSF4 cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4, 30kDa Complexes with NS1A and the viral polymerase Kuo and Krug, 2009
  310. CR1 complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1 (Knops blood group) General receptor for opsonised pathogens: Influenza included Boackle et al, 1998
  311. CR2 complement component (3d/Epstein Barr virus) receptor 2 : CR1 and CR2 play a role in the maintenance of long-term memory to the virus Fernandez Gonzalez et al, 2008
  312. CRAMP1L Crm, cramped-like (Drosophila) : siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  313. CREB1 cAMP responsive element binding protein 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  314. CREB3 cAMP responsive element binding protein 3: cAMP responsive element binding protein 3: cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 associates with the viral polymerase: CREB3 binds to NA,HA,PB2 Shapira et al, 2010
  315. CRHR1 corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  316. CRK v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (avian) binds to the NS1 protein of the 1918 pandemic virus Heikkinen et al, 2008
  317. CRKL v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (avian)-like binds to the NS1 protein of the 1918 pandemic virus Heikkinen et al, 2008
  318. CRLS1 cardiolipin synthase 1 : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  319. CRP C-reactive protein, pentraxin-related: Serum levels generaly raised after viral infections Salonen and Vaheri, 1981
  320. CRTAP cartilage associated protein: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  321. CRX cone-rod homeobox: binds to M2 Shapira et al, 2009
  322. CRY2 cryptochrome 2 (photolyase-like): siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  323. CRYAA crystallin, alpha A: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  324. CRYAB crystallin, alpha B associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  325. CSE1L CSE1 chromosome segregation 1-like (yeast): Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study): Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011 König et al, 2010
  326. KCNIP3 Kv channel interacting protein 3, calsenilin (Ex CSEN) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  327. CSF2 colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage): pulmonary CSF2 protects against lethal influenza infection Huang et al, 2011
  328. CSF3 colony stimulating factor 3 (granulocyte): protects mice during respiratory virus infections Hermesh et al, 2012
  329. CSK c-src tyrosine kinase: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  330. CSMD3 CUB and Sushi multiple domains 3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  331. CSNK1D casein kinase 1, delta : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  332. CSNK1G2 casein kinase 1, gamma 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  333. CSNK2A1 casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptideBinds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  334. CSNK2A2 casein kinase 2, alpha prime polypeptide: binds to PB2,M2,PB1,M1 Shapira et al, 2009
  335. CSNK2B casein kinase 2, beta polypeptide siRNA knockdown increases viral titres Marjuki et al, 2008 .binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  336. CTNNB1 catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010 beta- and gamma-catenin inhibit viral replication in lung epithelial cells by enhancing the virus-dependent induction of the IFNB1 gene and interferon-stimulated genes Hillesheim et al, 2014
  337. CTNND1 catenin (cadherin-associated protein), delta 1: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  338. CTSB Cathepsin B binds to NS1 Ngamurulert et al, 2009
  339. CTSG cathepsin G : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  340. CTSW cathepsin W: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  341. CUL3 Cullin 3: Involved in endolysosomal viral traffic Huotari et al, 2012
  342. CX3Cl1 fractalkine: expression decreased decreased in the hippocampus of infected mice Jurgens et al, 2012
  343. CXCL9 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (mig) Part of the cytokine storm induced by infection , particularly by the H1N1 strain Us, 2008
  344. CXCL10 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (IP-10) Part of the cytokine storm induced by infection , particularly by the H1N1 strain Us, 2008
  345. CXCL13 Regulates immunity to the virus Rangel-Moreno et al, 2007
  346. CXCR2 mediates neutrophil trafficking to the lung during influenza virus infection Wareing et al, 2007
  347. CXCR3 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3: Protects CCR5 knockout mice from viral infection Fadel et al, 2008
  348. CXCR6 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  349. CXorf21 chromosome X open reading frame 21 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  350. CYBA cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  351. CYBB cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  352. CYCS cytochrome c, somatic mitochondrial cytochrome C is released by the virus as part of its apoptotic effects Zhang et al, 2011
  353. CYLD cylindromatosis (turban tumor syndrome) :binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009
  354. CYP17A1 cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 :siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  355. CYP2U1 Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily U, polypeptide 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  356. DAPK2 death-associated protein kinase 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  357. DAPK3 death-associated protein kinase 3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  358. DAP3 death associated protein 3:siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
    1. Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  359. DAXX death-domain associated protein: binds to PB1,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  360. DBT dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  361. DCLK1 doublecortin-like kinase 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  362. DCLK2 doublecortin-like kinase 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  363. DCTN1 dynactin 1: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  364. DDB1 damage-specific DNA binding protein 1, 127kDa required by both H1N1 and H5N1 polymerases Bortz et al, 2011.
  365. DDIT4 DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (redd1) cells expressing high concentrations of REDD1show lower NS1 viral protein expression Mata et al, 2011.
  366. DDX1 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 1: DDX1, DDX21, and DHX36 helicases form a complex with the adaptor molecule TRIF to sense dsRNA in dendritic cells Zhang et al, 2011.
  367. DDX5 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 5: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  368. DDX17 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 17 required by both H1N1 and H5N1 polymerases Bortz et al, 2011. . facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  369. DDX21 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 21: DDX1, DDX21, and DHX36 helicases form a complex with the adaptor molecule TRIF to sense dsRNA in dendritic cells Zhang et al, 2011.
    1. Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  370. DDX28 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 28: regulates viral replication Hao et al, 2008
  371. DDX39B DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 39B (uap56) prevents viral double stranded RNA formation Wisskirchen et al, 2011 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  372. DDX42 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 42: regulates viral replication Hao et al, 2008
  373. DDX54 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 54: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  374. DDX58 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 58 (Rig-1) binds to NS1 in a complex with MAVS Mibayashi et al, 2007 . facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  375. DEDD2 death effector domain containing 2: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  376. DEFA1 defensin, alpha 1(HNP-1) : Salivary protein that promotes viral neutralisation White et al, 2009
  377. DEFA5 defensin, alpha 5, Paneth cell-specific: DEFA1 and DEFA5 facilitate uptake of the virus by neutrophils Tecle et al, 2007
  378. DEFB103A defensin, beta 103A (Equivalent of mouse DEFB3): DEFB3 inhibits viral replication Jiang et al, 2009
  379. DENND1B DENN/MADD domain containing 1B: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  380. DERL3 Der1-like domain family, member 3: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  381. DHCR7 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  382. DHRS2 dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  383. DHX9 DEAH (Asp-Glu-Ala-His) box polypeptide 9: Binds to NS1: Lin et al, 2011
  384. DHX36 DEAH (Asp-Glu-Ala-His) box polypeptide 36: DDX1, DDX21, and DHX36 helicases form a complex with the adaptor molecule TRIF to sense dsRNA in dendritic cells Zhang et al, 2011.
  385. DHX57 DEAH (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 57 : Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  386. DHX58 DEXH (Asp-Glu-X-His) box polypeptide 58: downregulates interferon production during infection Malur et al, 2012
  387. DICER1 dicer 1, ribonuclease type III Dicer knockdown increases virus production and accelerates apoptosis of infected cells Matskevich and Moelling, 2007
  388. DIO1 deiodinase, iodothyronine, type I : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  389. DLG1 discs, large homolog 1 (Drosophila) associates with NS1 Liu et al, 2010
  390. DLG2 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  391. DLG4 discs, large homolog 4 (Drosophila) (psd95) Binds to NS1 Zhang et al, 2011
  392. DLG5 discs, large homolog 5 (Drosophila) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  393. DLL1 delta-like 1: positively influences the development of anti-viral immunity Ito et al, 2011
  394. DMAP1 DNA methyltransferase 1 associated protein 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  395. DMBT1 deleted in malignant brain tumors 1: a salivary protein with antiviral properties Malamud et al, 2011
  396. DNAJA1 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily A, member 1: co-opted by influenza A virus to enhance its viral RNA polymerase activity Cao et al, 2015
  397. DNAJB1 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1 binds to the M2 protein Guan et al, 2010
    1. Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  398. DNAJB4 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 4: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  399. DNAJB5 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 5: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  400. DNAJB6 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 6: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  401. DNAJC3 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 3: binds to M2 enhancing PKR autophosphorylation Guan et al, 2010
  402. DNM1 Dynamin 1: Entry to mink lung cells is blocvked by dominant negative DNM1 Roy et al 2000
  403. DNMT1 DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1:The virus regulates IL6 via epigenetic nmechanisms involving DNMT1 Tang et al, 2011
  404. DNMT3B DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta : Epigenetic modifications of IL32 via DNMT1 and DNMT3B Li et al, 2010
  405. DOCK8 dedicator of cytokinesis 8 binds to viral PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  406. DPM1 dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase polypeptide 1, catalytic subunit: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  407. DPYD dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  408. DR1 down-regulator of transcription 1, TBP-binding (negative cofactor 2) : Knockdown reduces viral RNA and protein production Hsu et al, 2015
  409. DSP desmoplakin : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  410. DST Dystonin: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  411. DSTN Destrin Virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  412. DTX2 deltex homolog 2 (Drosophila) :Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  413. DTX3 deltex homolog 3 (Drosophila): siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  414. DUOX2 dual oxidase 2 : infection led to coordinated upregulated Duox2 and Duox-mediated ROS generation in human differentiated lung epithelial cells Strengert et al, 2014
  415. DUPD1 dual specificity phosphatase and pro isomerase domain containing 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  416. DUSP1 dual specificity phosphatase 1 DUSP1 binds to PB2,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009 Knockout mice were defective in anti-influenza immunity in vivo and resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by MOG Zhang et al, 2009.
  417. DUSP3 dual specificity phosphatase 3:Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 201DUSP27 dual specificity phosphatase 27 (Ex LOC92235) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  418. DVL2 dishevelled, dsh homolog 2 (Drosophila) associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  419. DVL3 dishevelled, dsh homolog 3 (Drosophila) DVL3 binds to M2,PB2,M1,PB1Shapira et al, 2010
  420. DYNC1H1 dynein, cytoplasmic 1, heavy chain 1 :Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  421. DYNLL2 dynein, light chain, LC8-type 2 :binds to viral NS2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  422. DYRK1A dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  423. DYRK1B dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1B : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  424. E2F1 E2F transcription factor 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  425. EEF1A1 eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007 . siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  426. EEF1D eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (guanine nucleotide exchange protein): Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  427. EEF1G eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  428. EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor involved in viral entry Eierhoff et al, 2010 . Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  429. EGLN2 egl nine homolog 2 (C. elegans) binds to the viral nucleoprotein (Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2010 Aug;26(8):1037-41. Chinese.)
  430. EGR2 can function as a positive regulator that is essential for naïve T-cell differentiation and in vivo T-cell responses to a viral (influenza) infection Du et al, 2014.
  431. EIF2AK2 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2 (pkr) binds to PB2,NS1,M1 Shapira et al, 2009 inhibited by NS1 Min et al, 2007 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  432. EIF2C1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C, 1: Knockout increases susceptibility to infection in mice : Van Stry et al, 2012
  433. EIF2C3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C, 3: Knockout increases susceptibility to infection in mice : Van Stry et al, 2012
  434. EIF2S1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 1 alpha, 35kDa Phosphorylated downstream of pkr activation by many viruses Lu et al, 1995
  435. EIF3A eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit A: (EIF3S10) siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  436. EIF3C eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit C:siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  437. EIF3G eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit G (EIF3S4): siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  438. EIF3F eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F (EIF3S5) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  439. EIF3L eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit L (Ex EIF3S6IP): Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  440. EIF4A3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A3 (ex DDX48) siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  441. EIF4B eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B: lysosomal degradation of eI is induced by viral NS1 protein Wang et al, 2014
  442. EIF4E eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E involved in viral mRNA translation Burgui et al, 2007
  443. EIF4G1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 1 associates with the NS1 protein Burgui et al, 2003
  444. ELK1 ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family :binds to PB2,NS1,PB1 Shapira et al, 2009
  445. ELMOD2 ELMO/CED-12 domain containing 2 regulates antiviral responses Pulkkinen et al, 2010
  446. ENG endoglin : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  447. ENGASE endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase EC 3.2.1.96 (Ex FLJ21865) siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  448. ENO1 enolase 1, (alpha): Virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  449. ENTPD8 ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 8 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  450. EP300 E1A binding protein p300: binds to PB1,PB2,PA Shapira et al, 2009
  451. EPHA7 EPH receptor A7 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  452. EPHB2 EPH receptor B2: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  453. EPHB4 EPH receptor B4 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  454. EPHB6 EPH receptor B6: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  455. EPN1 Epsin1 involved in clathrin-mediated viral endocytosis Chen and Zhuang, 2008
  456. EPRS glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  457. EPS8L3 EPS8-like 3 : Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  458. ERBB3 v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (avian): The polymerase PB1-contact site on Ebp1 (PA2G4) overlaps with the interaction site with ErbB3 (epidermal receptor tyrosine kinase), androgen receptor (AR) and retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) Honda et al, 2007
  459. ERN1endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling : Pathway activated by infection Hassan et al, 2011
  460. ERN2 endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  461. ERVW-1 endogenous retrovirus group W, member 1: (syncytin-1) influenza infection can transactivate retroviral ERVWE1 by increasing GCM1 transcription and reducing H3K9me3 in this region and in other regions harboring HERV-W elements Li et al, 2014
  462. ESR1 estrogen receptor 1: 17-beta oestradiol protects females from viral pathogenesis by suppressing inflammation, acting via ESR1 Robinson et al, 2011
  463. ESR2 estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta): Estradiol, raloxifene, and bisphenol A decrease viral titers in human nasal epithelial cell from female, but not male, donors via ESR2 Peretz et al, 2015.
  464. ETS1 v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (avian): binds to PB1,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  465. ETV5 ets variant 5: virus-inducedETV5 phosphorylation was reduced by using p38MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 Zhang et al, 2014
  466. EXOC6 exocyst complex component 6: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  467. EXOSC8 exosome component 8: binds to viral M1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  468. EZH2 – enhancer of zeste homolog 2: EZH2 overexpression facilitates the replication of WSN and A/Puerto Rico/8/34 influenza viral strains Chen et al, 2013.
  469. F2R coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor: antagonists or F2R deficiency protect mice from infection with influenza A viruses Khoufache et al, 2013
  470. F2RL1 coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1 knockout protects mice from H1N1 influenza A virus-induced lethality Nhu et al, 2010
  471. F8 coagulation factor VIII, procoagulant component: The hemagglutinin protein has homology with plasminogen activators and possesses anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activities which affects the blood clotting factors fibrinogen and factor XIII in vitro and in vivo Zhilinskaia et al, 1996
  472. F11R F11 receptor: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  473. F13A1 coagulation factor XIII, A1 polypeptide : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  474. FABP4 fatty acid binding protein 4, adipocyte: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  475. FAM104B family with sequence similarity 104, member B : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  476. FAM13C1 family with sequence similarity 13, member C: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  477. FAM83H family with sequence similarity 83, member H: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  478. FAM135A family with sequence similarity 135, member A : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  479. FANCG Fanconi anemia, complementation group G: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  480. FAS Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6): Involved in viral propagation Wurzer et al, 2004
  481. FASLG Fas ligand (TNF superfamily, member 6) regulator ot T cell apoptosis induced by viral infection Nichols et al, 2001
  482. FASN fatty acid synthase Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  483. FAU Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV) ubiquitously expressed: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  484. FADD Fas (TNFRSF6)-associated via death domainnegatively regulates viral-induced interferon production Young et al, 2011
  485. FBL fibrillarin: binds to H3N2 subtype virus NS1 Melén et al, 2012
  486. FBXL17 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 17: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  487. FBXO44 F-box protein 44: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  488. FBXW10 F-box and WD repeat domain containing 10: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  489. FCER1G Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; gamma polypeptidePlays a key role in viral phagocytosis Huber et al, 2001
  490. FCGR3A Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIIa, receptor (CD16a : Plays a role in viral elimination (two human forms of a single mouse receptor) El Bakkouri et al, 2011
  491. FCGR3B Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIIb, receptor (CD16b) : Plays a role in viral elimination (two human forms of a single mouse FCGR3 receptor) El Bakkouri et al, 2011
  492. FCHO2 FCH domain only 2 : siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  493. FCN2 ficolin (collagen/fibrinogen domain containing lectin) 2 (hucolin):binds hemagglutinin and neuraminidase Pan et al, 2012
  494. FERMT3 fermitin family member 3: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  495. FGF19 fibroblast growth factor 19: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  496. FGA fibrinogen alpha chain: The hemagglutinin protein has homology with plasminogen activators and possesses anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activities which affects the blood clotting factors fibrinogen and factor XIII in vitro and in vivo Zhilinskaia et al, 1996
  497. FGB fibrinogen beta chain: See FGA Zhilinskaia et al, 1996
  498. FGG fibrinogen gamma chain See FGA Zhilinskaia et al, 1996
  499. FGFR1 fibroblast growth factor receptor 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  500. FGFR2 fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  501. FGFR4 fibroblast growth factor receptor 4: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  502. FHIT fragile histidine triad gene: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  503. FHL2 four and a half LIM domains 2: enhances the cellular innate immune response to infection Nordhoff et al, 2012
  504. FHOD1 formin homology 2 domain containing 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  505. FKBP5 FK506 binding protein 5: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  506. FKBP8 FK506 binding protein 8, 38kDa: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  507. FKBP9 FK506 binding protein 9, 63 kDa: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  508. FLJ11235 hypothetical FLJ11235: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  509. C11orf63 chromosome 11 open reading frame 63 (Ex FLJ23554) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  510. FLJ25758 hypothetical locus FLJ25758 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  511. FDPS farnesyl diphosphate synthase regulates the release of viral particles Kumar et al, 2011
  512. FLT3 fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  513. FLT4 fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  514. FMR1 fragile X mental retardation 1: binds to PB2,NS1,NP,PB1,M1 Shapira et al, 2009
  515. FN1 fibronectin required for cellular entry for viruses preferring alpha 2,6-linked sialic acids. Leung et al, 2012
  516. FNTB farnesyltransferase, CAAX box, beta : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  517. FOLH1 folate hydrolase (prostate-specific membrane antigen) 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  518. FOXP3 forkhead box P3: FoxP3(+) virus-specific CD8(+) T cells can be generated after infection Billerbeck et al, 2007
  519. FOXQ1 forkhead box Q1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  520. FPR1 formyl peptide receptor 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  521. FRK fyn-related kinase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  522. FSCN1 fascin homolog 1, actin-bundling protein (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus): Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  523. FURIN Furin (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme) cleaves the viral hemagglutinin Stieneke-Gröber et al, 1992
  524. FUS fused in sarcoma: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  525. FUT4 fucosyltransferase 1 (galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, H blood group): Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  526. FXR2 fragile X mental retardation, autosomal homolog 2 :binds to viral NS1,NP,PB1,PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  527. ISG15: ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier (G1P2): siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  528. G6PC3 glucose 6 phosphatase, catalytic, 3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  529. G6PD glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  530. GABBR1 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  531. GABPA GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit 60kDa : binds to PB1 Shapira et al, 2009
  532. GABPB1 GA binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit 1 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  533. GAK cyclin G associated kinase: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  534. GAL3ST1 galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 1: Sulfatide ,synthesised by ceramide galactosyltransferase (UGT8) and cerebroside sulfotransferase (GAL3ST1), and degraded by arylsulfatase A enhances viral replication , as demonstrated by ARSA overexpression or GAL3ST1 knockdown Takahashi et al, 2008
  535. galactosyl ceramide binds to the virus Suzuki et al, 1996
  536. Ganglioside Gm1B (NeuAc alpha 2-3 Ga1 beta 1-3 GalNAc beta 1-4 Gal beta 1-4 GLc beta 1-1'-ceramide) Viral receptor Suzuki et al, 1985 Ganglosides GT1b or GD1b interact with viral hemagglutinin Slepushkin et al, 1988
  537. GAPDH glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: Virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  538. GBP1 guanylate binding protein 1, interferon-inducible: Interacts with viral NS1 Zhu et al, 2013
  539. GBF1 golgi brefeldin A resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  540. GC group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein) The hemagglutinin protein possesses active trypsin dependent NAGA activity that deglycosylates the vitamin D3 binding protein (GC) Yamamoto and Urade, 2005
  541. GCLC glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  542. GCM1 glial cells missing homolog 1: influenza infection can transactivate retroviral ERVWE1 by increasing GCM1 transcription and reducing H3K9me3 in this region and in other regions harboring HERV-W elements Li et al, 2014
  543. GDF10 growth differentiation factor 10: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  544. GEMIN5 gem (nuclear organelle) associated protein 5: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  545. GGTLC2 gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 2: (ex GGTL4) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  546. GLCE glucuronic acid epimerase: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  547. GLS glutaminase: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  548. GJA8 gap junction protein, alpha 8, 50kDa : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  549. GLS glutaminase: inhibition decreases replication of adenovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and influenza A in cultured primary cells Thai et al, 2015
  550. Glutathione has antiviral properties Cai et al, 2003
  551. GLYAT glycine-N-acyltransferase: binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  552. GMCL1 germ cell-less homolog 1 (Drosophila): binds to viral NP protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  553. GNB2 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2: binds to PB1-F2 protein Guan et al, 2012
  554. GNB2L1 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (rack1) binds to M1 Reinhardt and Wolff, 2000 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011GNL3L facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  555. GNRH2 gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  556. GOLGA2 golgin A2 binds to NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  557. GOLGA4 golgin A4: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  558. GOLGB1 golgin B1: binds to NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  559. GON4L gon-4-like (C. elegans): facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  560. GOPC golgi-associated PDZ and coiled-coil motif containing: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  561. GPC1 glypican 1: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  562. GPR62 G protein-coupled receptor 62 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  563. GPR146 G protein-coupled receptor 146: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  564. GPX1 glutathione peroxidase 1 component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  565. GRIN2C glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2C [: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  566. POLR2M (GRINL1A) polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide M: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  567. GRK5 G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  568. GRK6 G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009 .Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  569. GRSF1 G-rich RNA sequence binding factor 1 regulates viral protein synthesis Kash et al, 2002
  570. GSK3B glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta : required for viral entry König et al, 2010 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  571. GSR glutathione reductase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  572. GSTM4 glutathione S-transferase mu 4: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  573. GTF2H3 general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 3, 34kDa: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  574. GTF3C3 general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 3, 102kDa binds to M1 protein Huang et al, 2009
  575. GZMK Granzyme K: inhibits viral replication Zhong et al, 2011
  576. H1FX H1 histone family, member X: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  577. HAND2 heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  578. HARBI1 harbinger transposase derived 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  579. HAVCR2 hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2: regulates influenza A virus-specific humoral and CD8 T-cell responses Sharma et al, 2011.
  580. HAX1 HCLS1 associated protein X-1 component of the viral polymerase Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  581. HDAC1 histone deacetylase 1: HDAC1 inhibits acidification and penetration of the virus Yamauchi et al, 2011
  582. HDAC6 histone deacetylase 6: recruired to viral fusion sites Banerjee et al, 2014
  583. HDAC8 histone deacetylase 8: enhances endocytosis, acidification, and penetration of the incoming virus Yamauchi et al, 2011.
  584. HEATR2 HEAT repeat containing 2: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  585. HEATR7A HEAT repeat containing 7A :facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  586. HECTD1 HECT domain containing 1: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  587. HEG1 HEG homolog 1 (zebrafish): siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  588. HERC1 hect (homologous to the E6-AP (UBE3A) carboxyl terminus) domain and RCC1 (CHC1)-like domain (RLD) 1 : binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  589. HERC4 hect domain and RLD 4: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  590. HERC5 hect domain and RLD 5: catalyzes the conjugation of ISG15 with the NS1 protein Tang et al, 2010
  591. HERC6 hect domain and RLD 6 : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  592. HGF hepatocyte growth factor: serum HGF levels are elevated in patients with acute infectious diseases, including influenza
  593. HIF1A hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) :Microglial activation and increased expression of HIF1A in Cynomolgus macaques infected with H1N1 Tolnay et al, 2010
  594. HIPK1 homeodomain interacting protein kinase 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  595. HIPK2 homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  596. HIPK3 homeodomain interacting protein kinase 3: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  597. HIST1H2BN histone cluster 1, H2bn: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  598. HIST3H3 histone cluster 3, H3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  599. HKDC1 hexokinase domain containing 1 : Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  600. HLA-A major histocompatibility complex, class I, A : One of a broad spectrum binding to influenza epitopes Babon et al, 2009
  601. HLA-B major histocompatibility complex, class I, B binds to NS1 Ngamurulert et al, 2009
  602. HLA-DRB1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1 complexes with a viral peptide Stern et al, 1994
  603. HLA-DRB5 viral peptides, recognized by CD4(+) T cells showed binding to recombinant DRA1*0101/DRB1*0401 or DRA1*0101/DRB5*010 Wang et al, 2010
  604. HMGA1 high mobility group AT-hook 1 : binds to PB1,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  605. HMGCR 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase: Mevastatin (HMGCR inhibitor) suppresses viral activation of gammadelta T cells Jameson et al, 2010
  606. HMBOX1 homeobox containing 1: Binds to NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  607. HMGB1 high mobility group box 1: HMGB1 and HMGB2 bind directly to the viral nucleoprotein Moisy et al, 2012
  608. HMOX1 heme oxygenase (decycling) 1: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  609. HNRNPA1 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  610. HNRNPA2B1 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1: interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication Wang et al, 2014
  611. HNRNPF heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F binds to NS1 Lee et al, 2010
  612. HNRNPH1 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (H): Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  613. HNRNPM heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M required by both H1N1 and H5N1 polymerases Bortz et al, 2011.
  614. HNRNPUL1 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like 1 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  615. HNT1 Histatin 1: Salivary protein that promotes viral neutralisation White et al, 2009
  616. HNT3 Histatin 3: Salivary protein that promotes viral neutralisation White et al, 2009
  617. HOOK1 binds to viral PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  618. HPGD hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) : siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  619. HRAS v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  620. HSD17B1 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 1 Binds to NS1 Wolff et al, 1996
  621. HSD17B12 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 12: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  622. HSF4 heat shock transcription factor 4: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  623. HSP90AA1 heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class A member 1 Hsp90 inhibitors reduce viral replication Chase et al, 2008Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  624. HSP90AB1 heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class B member 1: Hsp90 inhibitors reduce viral replication Chase et al, 2008 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  625. HSPA1A heat shock 70kDa protein 1A component of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Li et al, 2011 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  626. HSPA5 heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa) binds to the hemagglutinin precursor, HA0 Hurtley et al, 1989
  627. HSPA8 heat shock 70kDa protein 8 (hsc70) binds to M1 Watanabe et al, 2006 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  628. HSPB1 heat shock 27kDa protein 1: enhances the inhibitory effect of NS1 on the expression of IFN-beta Li et aL, 2012
  629. HSPD1 heat shock 60kDa protein 1 (chaperonin): siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  630. HSPH1 heat shock 105kDa/110kDa protein 1: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  631. HTATSF1 HIV-1 Tat specific factor 1 enhances the activity of the viral polymerase Bortz et al, 2011 binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  632. HTR2A 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2A : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  633. HUNK hormonally up-regulated Neu-associated kinase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  634. ICAM1 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 : Involved in the effects of natural killer cells on the virus Eisenthal et al, 1997
  635. ICOS inducible T-cell co-stimulator: plays a role in the primary response to viruses (Antibody production, germinal center formation and Th cytokine production) Bertram et al, 2002
  636. IDH2 isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (NADP+), mitochondria enhances the activity of the viral polymerase Bortz et al, 2011
  637. IDO1 indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 activated by IFNG and by many pathogens including influenza Taylor and Feng, 1991 activation diverts tryptophan metabolisim towards kynurenic acid and quinolinate production.
  638. IFIH1 interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (mda5): Soluble mediators from H5N1-infected human macrophages upregulate RIG-I, IFIH1, and TLR3 Hui et al, 2011
  639. IFITM1 interferon induced transmembrane protein 1: IFITM1,2 and 3 restrict viral replication Brass et al, 2009
  640. IFITM2 Brass et al, 2009
  641. IFITM3 interferon induced transmembrane protein 3: prevents cytosolic entry Feeley et al, 2011
  642. IFN1@ IFN-a production during RNA virus infection is mediated by the master transcription factor IRF7, which is activated upon ubiquitination by TRAF6 and phosphorylation by IKKe and TBK1 kinases Young et al, 2011.
  643. IFNA7 interferon, alpha 7: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  644. IFNAR1 interferon (alpha, beta and omega) receptor 1: Viral hemagglutinin protein triggers the ubiquitination of IFNAR1, diminishing IFNAR1 levels Xia et al, 2015.
  645. IFNAR2 interferon (alpha, beta and omega) receptor 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  646. IFNB1 interferon, beta 1 the RNA binding domain of the NS1 protein regulates IL6, IFNB and TNF expression Newby et al, 2007
  647. IFNG interferon, gamma: Part of the cytokine storm induced by infection , particularly by the H1N1 strain Us, 2008
  648. IFNGR2 interferon gamma receptor 2 (interferon gamma transducer 1): siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  649. IGF2BP1 insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  650. IGF2BP3 insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  651. IGHM immunoglobulin heavy constant mu: Protects mice from influenza mortality Harada et al, 2003
  652. IGSF1 immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  653. IK IK cytokine, down-regulator of HLA II siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  654. IKBKB inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009 Dominant negative IKBKB blocks the effects of the virus on almost all H5N1 virus-induced genes Schmolke et al, 2009 .
  655. IKBKE inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase epsilon IFN-a production during RNA virus infection is mediated by the master transcription factor IRF7, which is activated upon ubiquitination by TRAF6 and phosphorylation by IKKe and TBK1 kinases Young et al, 2011. Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  656. IKBKG inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma: binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009
  657. IKZF3 IKAROS family zinc finger 3 (Aiolos) binds to viral PB1 protein Shapira et al, 2009
  658. IL1A interleukin 1, alphaL: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  659. IL1B interleukin 1, beta: Part of the cytokine storm induced by infection , particularly by the H1N1 strain Us, 2008
  660. IL1F9 interleukin 1 family, member 9 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  661. IL1R1 interleukin 1 receptor, type IL signaling through the IL-1 receptor is protective against the H1N1 strain in mice Belisle et al, 2010
  662. IL1RN interleukin 1 receptor antagonist : component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  663. IL2 interleukin 2: T cell growth factor : Acute influenza is associated with low plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, including IFNG, MIP-1ß (CCL4) , IL2 and IL15, and high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL10 and IL1RN .Jost et al, 2011
  664. IL2RA interleukin 2 receptor, alphaVgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes upregulate expression of IL2RA (CD25) and CD69 and produce IFN-gamma following influenza infection Jameson et al, 2010
  665. IL4 interleukin 4 ( B cell growth factor 1) and IL2 produced by t cells in response to infection Falchetti et al, 1996
  666. IL5 interleukin 5 (colony-stimulating factor, eosinophil) Serum levels elevated in children infected with the 2009 H1N1 virus Terai et al, 2011
  667. IL6 interleukin 6 (interferon, beta 2); the RNA binding domain of the NS1 protein regulates IL6, IFNB and TNF expression Newby et al, 2007
  668. IL6R interleukin 6 receptor binds to NS1 Ngamurulert et al, 2009
  669. IL7 see Shen et al, 2008
  670. IL7R interleukin 7 receptor: Loss of IL7R and IL15R in airway CD8+ T cells assocaited with disappearance of memory T cells in respiratory tract following influenza infection Shen et al, 2008
  671. IL8 interleukin 8 Part of the cytokine storm induced by infection , particularly by the H1N1 strain Us, 2008
  672. IL9 high serum levels found in H1N1 pandemic victims Bermejo-Martin et al 2009
  673. IL9R interleukin 9 receptor : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  674. IL10 Acute influenza is associated with low plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, including IFNG, MIP-1ß (CCL4) , IL2 and IL15, and high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL10 and IL1RN .Jost et al, 2011
  675. IL12A interleukin 12A (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 1, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 1, p35) Primary cytokine activated in reponse to pulmonary infection in mice Hama et al, 2009
  676. IL12B interleukin 12B (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 2, p40): Primary cytokine activated in reponse to pulmonary infection in mice Hama et al, 2009
  677. IL13 interleukin 13: Infection activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulted in the production of IL33 by alveolar macrophages, which in turn activated natural helper cells producing substantial IL13 Chang et al, 2011.
  678. IL15 interleukin 15 : Acute influenza is associated with low plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, including IFNG, MIP-1ß (CCL4) , IL2 and IL15, and high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL10 and IL1RN .Jost et al, 2011
  679. IL15RA interleukin 15 receptor, alpha: binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 200
  680. IL17A modulates the B cell response during H1N1 infection Wang et al, 2011
  681. IL17RA interleukin 17 receptor A: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  682. IL18 required as a regulator of cytokine production by influenza specific CD8)+ cells Denton et al, 2007 . component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  683. IL18R1 interleukin 18 receptor 1: IFN-alpha/beta, activated by the virus prolongs T cell survival, upregulates IL12 and IL-18 receptor gene expression and together with IL18 stimulates natural killer and T cell IFNG production Julkunen et al, 2001
  684. IL18RAP interleukin 18 receptor accessory protein : expression modified by infection Huang et al, 2011
  685. IL22 activated in peripheral blood mononuclear cell from influenza A virus-infected patients Yu et al, 2014
  686. IL28B interleukin 28B (interferon, lambda 3) : Intranasal administration of IFN-lambda induces the antiviral factor Mx1 in mouse lungs and protects IFNAR1knockout mice from lethal influenza virus infection Mordstein et al, 2008
  687. IL32 Possesses antiviral activity and is upregulated by infection Li et al, 2010
  688. IL33 Proinflammatory cytokine released by the inflammasome in response to infection Ichinohe and Iwasaki, 2009
  689. IL34 IL-34 levels higher in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell from influenza A virus-infected patients Yu et al, 2014
  690. IK IK cytokine, down-regulator of HLA II: together with SMU1 controls the expression of viral NS2/NEP and required for efficient viral multiplication Fournier et al, 2014.
  691. IKZF3 IKAROS family zinc finger 3 (Aiolos) associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  692. ILF2 interleukin enhancer binding factor 2, 45kDa : Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  693. ILF3 interleukin enhancer binding factor 3, 90kDa interacts with the viral nucleoprotein Wang et al,2009.
    1. Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  694. IMMT inner membrane protein, mitochondrial: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  695. IMPDH2 IMP (inosine 5'-monophosphate) dehydrogenase 2 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  696. INS Insulin binds to the virus Samnotra et al, 1988
  697. IPO5 importin 5 (ranbp5) enhances the activity of the viral polymerase Bortz et al, 2011
  698. IPO7 importin 7: (ranbp7) Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  699. IPO9 importin 9: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  700. IPO11 importin 11: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  701. IQGAP1 IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  702. DCAF6 (IQWD1) DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 6: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  703. IRAK1 IRAK1 binds to PB2,NP Shapira et al, 2009 Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  704. IRAK3 interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3: Higher viral titers in lungs and blood in IRAK3 knockout mice Seki et al, 2010
  705. IRAK4 interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 regulates influenza virus-induced production of interferons in plasmacytoid dendritic cells Kim et al, 2007
  706. IRF2 interferon regulatory factor 2 : siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  707. IRF3 interferon regulatory factor 3: IRF3 binds to PA,NP,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009 Activation blocked by NS1 Kuo et al, 2010
  708. IRF7 interferon regulatory factor 7: IFN-a production during RNA virus infection is mediated by the master transcription factor IRF7, which is activated upon ubiquitination by TRAF6 and phosphorylation by IKKe and TBK1 kinases Young et al, 2011.
  709. IRF9 interferon regulatory factor 9: activated via TP53 in reponse to infection Shen et al, 2009
  710. ISG15 ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier binds to NS1 protein Guan et al, 2011
    1. siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  711. ITCH – itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase: Knockdown retards the viral ribonucleoprotein complex release from endosomes and transport to the nucleus Su et al, 2013
  712. ITGA1 integrin, alpha 1: protects airway CD8+ effector T cells cells from apoptosis during infection Richter and Topham, 2007
  713. ITGA2B integrin, alpha 2b (platelet glycoprotein IIb of IIb/IIIa complex, antigen CD41) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  714. ITGA3 integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor): Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  715. ITGA5 integrin, alpha 5 (fibronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide): Influenza promotes collagen deposition via ITGA5/ITGB6 integrin-mediated transforming growth factor ß activation Jolly et al, 2014.
  716. ITGAL integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide): component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  717. ITGB1 integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12): protects airway CD8+ effector T cells cells from apoptosis during infection Richter and Topham, 2007
  718. ITGB2 integrin, beta 2 (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit): component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  719. ITGB6 integrin, beta 6: Influenza promotes collagen deposition via ITGA5/ITGB6 integrin-mediated transforming growth factor ß activation Jolly et al, 2014. \\
  720. ITK IL2-inducible T-cell kinase: Itk/PLCG1 signaling is activated by viral infection in T cells Fan et al, 2012 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  721. ITLN1 intelectin 1 (galactofuranose binding): siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  722. IVNS1ABP influenza virus NS1A binding protein Wolf et al, 1998
  723. JAK2 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  724. JAK3 Janus kinase 3 Infection survival increases in JAK3 knockout mice Bunting et al, 2000
  725. AIMP2 aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2(Ex JTV1) binds to viral NS2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  726. JUN jun proto-oncogene (ap-1) AP1 and jnk activated by viral RNA accumulation Ludwig et al, 2001
    1. siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  727. JUNB binds to PB2,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  728. JUP junction plakoglobin (gamma-catenin) : beta- and gamma-catenin inhibit viral replication in lung epithelial cells by enhancing the virus-dependent induction of the IFNB1 gene and interferon-stimulated genes Hillesheim et al, 2014
  729. KARS lysyl-tRNA synthetase interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  730. KATNB1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  731. KCNJ3 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  732. KCNJ11 potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 :
  733. KCNJ12 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  734. KCNK12 potassium channel, subfamily K, member 12 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  735. KCNK17 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  736. KCNMA1 potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, alpha member 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  737. KCNRG potassium channel regulator binds to viral PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  738. KCTD9 potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 : binds to the nucleoprotein from a swine and human influenza virus Generous et al, 2014
  739. KDELR1 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  740. KDSR facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  741. KHDRBS1 KH domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  742. KHDRBS3 binds to viral NS1 protein Shapira et al, 2009
  743. KHSRP KH-type splicing regulatory protein : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  744. KLK9 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  745. KIAA0391 mitochondrial RNase P protein 3; mitochondrial ribonuclease P protein 3 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  746. KIAA0664 (Other designations CLU1, DKFZp686L05242, DKFZp686M09233, FLJ23672) siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  747. SIK3 SIK family kinase 3 (Ex KIAA0999) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  748. KIAA1033 WASH complex subunit 7: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  749. KIAA1107 (Other designations OTTHUMP00000011946; hypothetical protein LOC23285) facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  750. KIAA1143 ( OTTHUMP00000164118; hypothetical protein LOC57456) binds to viral NS1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  751. KIDINS220 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  752. KIFC3 kinesin family member C3: Involved in intracellular viral transport Noda et al, 2001
  753. KIF11 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  754. KLF6 Kruppel-like factor 6: regulates apoptosis during influenza A virus infection.Mgbemena et al, 2012
  755. KLK5 – kallikrein-related peptidase 5: KLK5 and KLK12 peptidases cleave and activate the viral haemagglutininwith kallikrein 5 cleaving the H1 and H3 subtypes most efficiently and kallikrein 12 cleaving the H1 and H2 subtypes Hamilton and Whittaker, 2013
  756. KLK9 kallikrein-related peptidase 9 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  757. KLK12 – kallikrein-related peptidase 12: KLK5 and KLK12 peptidases cleave and activate the viral haemagglutininwith kallikrein 5 cleaving the H1 and H3 subtypes most efficiently and kallikrein 12 cleaving the H1 and H2 subtypes Hamilton and Whittaker, 2013
  758. KLRC1 killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily C, member 1: KLRD1/KLRC1 transduces a signal to activated CD8+ T cells that limits viral immunopathology Zhou et al , 2008
  759. KLRD1 killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily D, member 1: KLRD1/KLRC1 transduces a signal to activated CD8+ T cells that limits viral immunopathology Zhou et al , 2008
  760. KLRK1 killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily K, member 1: Required for natural killer cell activation by the virus Draghi et al, 2007
  761. KNG1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  762. KPNA1 karyopherin alpha 1 (importin alpha 5) binds to influenza A virus nucleoprotein Melen et al, 2003
  763. KPNA2 karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1 enhances the activity of the viral polymerase Bortz et al, 2011 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  764. KPNA3 karyopherin alpha 3 (importin alpha 4) associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  765. KPNA4 karyopherin alpha 4 (importin alpha 3) binds to influenza A virus nucleoprotein Melen et al, 2003
  766. KPNA6 karyopherin alpha 6 (importin alpha 7) associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  767. KPNB1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  768. KSR2 kinase suppressor of ras 2: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  769. KRT1 keratin 1: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  770. LAMA5 laminin, alpha 5: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  771. Kynurenic acid concentrations (NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist) are increased in the brains of infected mice (See IDO1) Holtze et al, 2008
  772. LAMB1 laminin, beta 1 : Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  773. LAMP3 lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3: an influenza A virus inducible gene, and playing a role in viral post-entry steps Zhou et al, 2011
  774. LARGE like-glycosyltransferase: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  775. LARP1 La ribonucleoprotein domain family, member 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  776. LEP leptin: high levels of circulating leptin contribute to the development of severe lung injury by A(H1N1)pdm09 in mice with diet-induced obesity Zhang et al, 2013
  777. Leukotriene b4 exerts antiviral effects by increasing the relase of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin (CAMP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (RNASE2): Effects mediated via LTB4R : Gaudreault and Gosselin , 2008
  778. LGALS1 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1: Galectin 1 binds to the virus and knockout mice are more susceptible to inection Yang et al, 2011
  779. LGALS2 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  780. LGALS8 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 8: Promotes viral binding to the target cell Chernyy et al, 2011
  781. LGALS9 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 9: regulates influenza A virus-specific humoral and CD8 T-cell responses Sharma et al, 2011.
  782. LGMN legumain : asparaginyl endopeptidase: legumain deficient mice are unable to generate a strong anti-influenza immune response: Cleaves TLR7 Maschalidi et al, 2012
  783. LHX3 LIM homeobox 3 : siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  784. LIMK1 LIM domain kinase 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  785. LIMS3 LIM and senescent cell antigen-like domains 3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  786. LINGO1 leucine rich repeat and Ig domain containing 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  787. LIPP27 component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  788. LMNA lamin A/C: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  789. LNX2 ligand of numb-protein X 2: binds to viral HA, M1, M2, NS1, PA, PB1, PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  790. LONP1 lon peptidase 1, mitochondrial (PRSS15): siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  791. LTB4R leukotriene B4 receptor : Leukotriene b4 exerts antiviral effects by increasing the relase of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin (CAMP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (RNASE2): Effects mediated via LTB4R : Gaudreault and Gosselin , 2008
  792. MEX3A mex-3 homolog A (C. elegans) (Ex LOC92312) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  793. KIAA1267 (Ex LOC284058) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  794. LOC401431 hypothetical LOC401431 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  795. HNRNPA1P16 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 pseudogene 16 (Ex LOC440396) Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  796. LOC441239 hypothetical gene supported by BC063653 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  797. LOC643641 KIAA0543, KIAA0543 protein : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  798. LOC653712 hypothetical LOC653712 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  799. LOC728683 similar to LOC442421 protein : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  800. LOC730974 hypothetical LOC730974 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  801. LPPR4 lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 4 [: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  802. LONP1 lon peptidase 1, mitochondrial: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  803. LRP1B low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  804. LRP11 low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 11: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  805. LRPPRC leucine-rich PPR-motif containing: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  806. LRRC16A leucine rich repeat containing 16A: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  807. LRRFIP1 leucine rich repeat (in FLII) interacting protein 1 recruited to influenza-containing early endosomes Bagashev et al, 2010
  808. LRRK1 leucine-rich repeat kinase 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  809. LINGO1 leucine rich repeat and Ig domain containing 1 (= LRRN6A) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  810. LSM4 LSM4 homolog, U6 small nuclear RNA associated (S. cerevisiae) : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  811. LSM14A LSM14A, SCD6 homolog A (S. cerevisiae): Binds to NS1 Mok et al, 2012
  812. LSMD1 LSM domain containing 1Downregulated by H5N1 infection in chicken or canine cell lines Balasubramaniam et al, 2011
  813. LTA lymphotoxin alpha (TNF superfamily, member 1) : T and B cellresponses to influenza are impaired in LTA knockout mice Lund et al, 2002
  814. LTK leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  815. LY6G6C lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6C: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  816. LY75 lymphocyte antigen 75: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  817. LYN v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral related oncogene homolog : component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  818. LYPLA1 lysophospholipase I : binds to viral NS1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  819. LYZ lysozyme: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  820. LZTS2 leucine zipper, putative tumor suppressor 2: binds to NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  821. MADD MAP-kinase activating death domain: binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009
  822. MAGEA6 melanoma antigen family A, 6 : binds to viral NP,PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  823. MAGEA11 melanoma antigen family A, 11 binds to viral NP,PB1,PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  824. MAGEA12 MAGEA12 binds to NS1 Udorn strain Shapira et al, 2009
  825. MAGED1melanoma antigen family D, 1 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  826. MAGI1 membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 1 associates with NS1 Liu et al, 2010
  827. MAGI2 membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 2 associates with NS1 Liu et al, 2010
  828. MAGI3 membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 3 associates with NS1 Liu et al, 2010
  829. MAL mal, T-cell differentiation protein involved in hemagglutinin sorting Puertollano et al, 1999
  830. MAN2B1 mannosidase, alpha, class 2B, member 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  831. MAP1A microtubule-associated protein 1A: binds to the viral nucleoprotein (Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2010 Aug;26(8):1037-41. Chinese.)
  832. MAP1B microtubule-associated protein 1B: binds to the viral nucleoprotein (Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2010 Aug;26(8):1037-41. Chinese.)
  833. MAP1LC3A microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3): siRNA knockdown reduces extracellular viral yield Zhou et al, 2009
  834. MAP1LC3C Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  835. MAP2K1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 MAP2K1 binds to PB2,PB1 Shapira et al, 2009 Viral infection activates the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade Pleschka et al, 2001.
  836. MAP2K2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 Viral infection activates the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade Pleschka et al, 2001. Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  837. MAP2K3 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  838. MAP2K4 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  839. MAP2K5 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  840. MAP2K7 binds to PB2,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  841. MAP3K7 binds to PB2,NS1,NP Shapira et al, 2009
  842. MAP3K7IP1 binds to PB2,NP Shapira et al, 2009
  843. MAP3K11 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  844. MAP3K12 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  845. MAP4K4 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  846. MAP7 microtubule-associated protein 7: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  847. MAPKAPK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 required for viral propagation, acting via inhibition of PKR Luig et al, 2010
  848. MAPKAPK3 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 required for viral propagation, acting via inhibition of PKR Luig et al, 2010
  849. MAPK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 Viral infection activates the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade Pleschka et al, 2001. Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  850. MAPK3 mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 : MAPK3 binds to PB1,M1,M2,PB2 Shapira et al, 2009 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  851. MAPK8 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (jnk) AP1 and jnk activated by viral RNA accumulation Ludwig et al, 2001
  852. MAPK9 mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  853. MAPK14 mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38) MAPK14 binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009 T cell activation of MAPK14 facilitates the immune response to the virus Conze et al, 2000.
  854. MARCO macrophage receptor with collagenous structure: Regulates influenza related inflammation Ghosh et al, 2011
  855. MARCH2 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  856. MARK2 MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  857. MARS methionyl-tRNA synthetase interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  858. MASP1 mannan-binding lectin serine peptidase 1 (C4/C2 activating component of Ra-reactive factor): Influenza susceptibility is increased in knockout mice Takahashi et al, 200
  859. MATN3 matrilin 3: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  860. MAVS mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (IPS-1) complexes with NS1/DDX58 Mibayashi et al, 2007
  861. MBL2 mannose-binding lectin (protein C) 2, soluble: inhibits viral infection in vitro and MBL2 null mice are more susceptible to infection Chang et al, 2010
  862. MBOAT2 membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 2: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  863. MBP myelin basic protein binds to the virus Malhotra et al, 1994
  864. MCM2 minichromosome maintenance complex component 2: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  865. MCCC1 methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase 1: Antiviral versus Influenza , human enterovirus 71 and vesicular stomatitis virus Cao et al, 2016
  866. MCM3 minichromosome maintenance complex component 3: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  867. MCM4 minichromosome maintenance complex component 4: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  868. MCM5: minichromosome maintenance complex component 5: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  869. MCM7 minichromosome maintenance complex component 7: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  870. MCM8 minichromosome maintenance complex component 8: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  871. MDM2 p53 binding protein homolog: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  872. MDN1 midasin homolog (yeast): facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  873. MED6 mediator complex subunit 6: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  874. MED14 mediator complex subunit 14 (CRSP2) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010fcr
  875. MEOX2 mesenchyme homeobox 2 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  876. MET met proto-oncogene (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) involved in viral entry Eierhoff et al, 2010
  877. Methadone enhances viral replication Chen et al, 2015
  878. MIB1 mindbomb homolog 1 (Drosophila) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  879. MICB MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B: upregulated in infected macrophages suggesting a role for MICB in the activation of IFNG in natural killer cells Siren et al, 2004
  880. MID1IP1 MID1 interacting protein 1 (gastrulation specific G12 homolog (zebrafish)): Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  881. MGC16075 hypothetical LOC84847: binds to viral NS1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  882. Microrna's (Human) binding to the viral genome and their predicted human targets (linked) Only some examples are shown: For many more predicted microRNA's targeting viruses see the VITA database
    1. MIR323 , MIR491, and MIR654 inhibit replication of the H1N1 influenza A virus by binding to the PB1 gene Song et al, 2010.
    2. MIR26A and MIR939 regulate H1N1 viral replication Liu et al, 2010
    3. MIR92A and MIR145 target the viral hemaglutinin MIR150 targets PB2 He et al, 2009
  883. MIF macrophage migration inhibitory factor (glycosylation-inhibiting factor) (aka dopachrome tautomerase): involved in the inflammatory response to infection Hou et al, 2009 binds to PB1-F2 protein Guan et al, 2012
  884. MINK1 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  885. MIPOL1 mirror-image polydactyly 1 : binds to viral NP,PB2 proteins Shapira et al, 2009
  886. Mitochondrial respiration, caused by a block in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, is inhibited by influenza, and herpes simplex HSV-1 Derakhshan et al, 2006 .
  887. MIR29C microRNA 29c : Viral induction inhibits the innate immune response through protection of A20 mRNA Zhang et al, 2015.
  888. MIR451A microRNA 451a: upregulated by infection and regulates dendritic cell cytokine responses to influenza infection Rosenberger et al, 2012
  889. MLH1 mutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2 (E. coli) associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  890. MLYCD malonyl-CoA decarboxylasesiRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  891. MME membrane metallo-endopeptidase: inactivates peptide hormones including glucagon, enkephalins, substance P, neurotensin, oxytocin, and bradykinin: infection causes airway hyperresponsiveness by decreasing MME expression Jacoby et al, 1988
  892. MMP2 matrix metallopeptidase 2 (gelatinase A, 72kDa gelatinase, 72kDa type IV collagenase): Epithelial expression of type IV collagenases (MMP2 and MMP9) increased by infection Yeo et al, 1999
  893. MMP9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase) upregulated by infection and implicated in blood brain barrier damage Kido et al, 2008
  894. MMS19 nucleotide excision repair homolog (S. cerevisiae): Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  895. MOAP1 modulator of apoptosis 1: interacts with PB1-F2 protein Cui et al, 2012
  896. MON2 MON2 homolog (S. cerevisiae): Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  897. MORC3 MORC family CW-type zinc finger 3 antagonises the viral polymerase Bortz et al, 2011
  898. MPO Myeloperoxidase possesses viricidal activity Yamamoto et al, 1991
  899. MRC1 mannose receptor, C type 1 Viral receptor Upham et al, 2010
  900. MRPL12 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L12 ; regulates viral replication Hao et al, 2008
  901. MRPL42 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  902. MRPS6 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S6 Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  903. MRPS7 Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  904. MRPS17 Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  905. MRPS31 Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  906. MSANTD3 Myb/SANT-like DNA-binding domain containing 3: binds to the nucleoprotein from a swine and human influenza virus Generous et al, 2014
  907. MSRA siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  908. MST1R siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  909. MTAP methylthioadenosine phosphorylase: binds to viral NS1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  910. MTDH metadherin: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  911. MTOR mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase) (Ex FRAP1 : FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated protein 1 ) Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  912. MUC5AC mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming: Airway mucin induced by infection Barbier et al, 2012
  913. MUC5B mucin 5B, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming: Salivary protein that promotes viral neutralisation White et al, 2009
  914. MX1 myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1, interferon-inducible protein p78 (mouse) a dynamin-like GTPase with broad spectrum antiviral activity Haller and Kochs , 2011 binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  915. MX2 myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 2 (mouse) possesses anti-influenza activity (in rats) when translocated to the nucleus Johannes et al, 1993
  916. MYC v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (avian): MYC binds to NP Shapira et al, 2009 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  917. MYD88 myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) :TLR7 and MYD88 control interferon production in response to the virus Diebold et al, 2004
  918. MYLK myosin light chain kinase: Involved in a macropinocytotic route of viral entry de Vries et al, 2011
  919. MYO1C myosin IC: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  920. MYOD1 myogenic differentiation 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  921. MYT1L myelin transcription factor 1-like: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  922. N-acetyl cysteine has antiviral properties but this is strain-dependent Garigliany and Desmecht , 2011
  923. N4BP2 NEDD4 binding protein 2: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  924. NAA10 N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 10, NatA catalytic subunit: (Ex ARD1A) siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  925. NADK NAD kinase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  926. NAE1 NEDD8 activating enzyme E1 subunit 1 (Ex APPBP1 amyloid precursor binding protein ) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  927. NAGA N-acetylgalactosaminidase, alpha (Viral ): The hemagglutinin protein possesses active trypsin dependent NAGA activity that deglycosylates the vitamin D3 binding protein (GC) Yamamoto and Urade, 2005
  928. NAGK N-acetylglucosamine kinase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  929. NAGPA N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphodiester alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  930. NAIP NLR family, apoptosis inhibitory protein (Ex BIRC1) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  931. NBPF22P neuroblastoma breakpoint family, member 22, pseudogene: binds to viral M1 protein Shapira et al, 2009
  932. NCAPH2 non-SMC condensin II complex, subunit H2: Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  933. NCBP1 nuclear cap binding protein subunit 1, 80kDa associates with viral mRNA Bier et al, 2011
  934. NCL nucleolin interacts with NS1 Murayama et al, 2007
  935. NCK2 NCK adaptor protein 2 : siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  936. NCR1 natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1 binds to and is activated by the hemagglutinin protein Arnon et al, 2006
  937. NCR2 natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 2 binds to and is activated by the hemagglutinin protein Arnon et al, 2006
  938. NDRG3 NDRG family member 3: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  939. NDUFA7 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 7, 14.5kDafacilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  940. NDUFA10 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 10, 42kDa: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  941. NDUFAF2 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, assembly factor 2: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  942. NDUFA13 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 13: involved in apoptosis induced in H5N1 virus-infected human macrophages Ekchariyawat et al, 2013.
  943. NDUFS3 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 3, 30kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase): binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  944. NEK6 NIMA (never in mitosis gene a)-related kinase 6 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  945. NEK8 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  946. NEK9 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  947. NF1L2 neurofibromin 1-like 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  948. NFAT5 nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5, tonicity-responsive : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  949. NFATC4 nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 4 [ regulates the transcription of H5N1 modified genes in human epithelial cells
  950. NFE2L2 nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (nrf2) regulates viral entry and replication in nasal epithelial cells Kesic et al, 2011.
  951. NFKB1 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 NFKB1 binds to PA,NP,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009 and negatively regulates the effects of interferon and antiviral activity Wei et al, 2006
  952. NFKBIA nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alphaPhosphorylated by viral infection Mak et al, 2004
  953. NFKBID nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, delta: Knockout modifis the production of antibodies in response to infection Touma et al, 2011
  954. NGF nerve growth factor expression decreased decreased in the hippocampus of infected mice Jurgens et al, 2012
  955. NHP2L1 NHP2 non-histone chromosome protein 2-like 1 (S. cerevisiae) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  956. NLE1 notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila) (Ex FLJ10458) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  957. NLGN4X neuroligin 4, X-linked : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  958. NLRC5 NLR family, CARD domain containing 5: NS1 binds to NLRC5 Ranjan et al, 2014
  959. NLRP3 NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 The M2 protein stimulates the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway Ichinohe et al, 2010. . component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  960. NLRX1 NLR family member X1: weakens cytokine responses to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus in human cells Allen et al, 2011 binds to PB1-F2 protein Jaworska et al, 2014
  961. NMI N-myc (and STAT) interactor: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  962. NOLC1 – nucleolar and coiled-body phosphoprotein 1 : Binds to NS1 Zhu et al, 2013
  963. NOD1 nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1: binds to PB1 Shapira et al, 2009
  964. NOD2 nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2: protects mice against influenza virus infection: Coulombe et al, 2012
  965. NOS1 nitric oxide synthase 1, neuronal: Prenatal infection induces durable brain changes in NOS1 expression postnatally Fatemi et al, 2000
  966. NOS2 nitric oxide synthase 2, inducible: Induced in macrophages by infection Imanishi et al, 2005
  967. NOTUM notum pectinacetylesterase homolog (Drosophila) : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  968. NOX4 NADPH oxidase 4: viral replication in lung epithelial cells depends on redox-sensitive pathways activated by NOX4-derived reactive oxygen species Amatore et al, 2015
  969. NPAS1 neuronal PAS domain protein 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  970. NPC1 Niemann-Pick disease, type C1: infection success depends on host cell cholesterol distribution. Decreasedviral replication caused by upregulated AnxA6 expression can be restored by exogenous replenishment of host cell cholesterol or by ectopic expression of the late endosomal cholesterol transporter NPC1 Musiol et al, 2013.
  971. NPM1 nucleophosmin (nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, numatrin) required by both H1N1 and H5N1 polymerases Bortz et al, 2011. Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  972. NPNT nephronectin: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  973. NPY1R neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  974. NR2F1 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 1 :binds to PB1,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  975. NR3C1 nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor): Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  976. NRAV negative regulator of antiviral response (non-protein coding) : modulates antiviral responses through suppression of interferon-stimulated gene transcription Ouyang et al, 2014.
  977. NRAS neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog activation increases viral replication Zhu et al, 2011
  978. NRBP1 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  979. NRF1 nuclear respiratory factor 1 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  980. NRG1 Neuregulin 1: Expression reduced in the prefrontal cortex in neonatally infected mice Asp et al, 2009
  981. NSF N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  982. NTHL1 nth endonuclease III-like 1 (E. coli): siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  983. NTRK1 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1 (NGF receptor TrkA): Inhibition suppresses viral replication Kumar et al, 2011
  984. NTRK2 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  985. NTSR1 neurotensin receptor 1 (high affinity) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  986. NUDCD3 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  987. NUDT4 nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 4: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  988. NUP54 nucleoporin 54kDa: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  989. NUP93 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  990. NUP98 nucleoporin 98kDa binds to NS2 Chen et al, 2010
    1. siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  991. NUP153 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  992. NUP205 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  993. NUP214 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  994. NXF1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  995. NXF3 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  996. NXT1 NTF2-like export factor 1 NS1 forms an inhibitory complex with NXF1/TAP, p15/NXT, Rae1/mrnp41, and E1B-AP5 Satterly et al, 2007
  997. OAS1 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, 40/46kDa the NS1A protein binds to double stranded DNA sequestering it away from OAS1 Min and Krug,2006
  998. OLA1 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  999. OPN1SW siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1000. OPRS1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1001. OR4M1 olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily M, member 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1002. OR51T1 olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily T, member 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1003. OR10H4 olfactory receptor, family 10, subfamily H, member 4 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1004. ORM1 orosomucoid 1 binds to hemagglutinin Mandenius et al, 2008
  1005. OSBP oxysterol binding protein: IFITM3 interacts with VAPA and prevents its association with OSBP, disrupting intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and inhibiting viral entry Amini-Bavil-Olyaee et al, 2013
  1006. OSBPL5 binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1007. OSMR oncostatin M receptor : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1008. OXSR1 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1009. P2RX7 essential for macrophage inflammasome activation during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1010. P2RY12
  1011. PA2G4 proliferation-associated 2G4, 38kDa (ErbB3-binding protein Ebp1) Inhibits the viral polymerase Honda et al, 2007
    1. The polymerase PB1-contact site on Ebp1 (PA2G4) overlaps with the interaction site with ErbB3 (epidermal receptor tyrosine kinase), androgen receptor (AR) and retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) Honda et al, 2007
  1012. PABPC1 poly(A) binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 associates with viral mRNA Bier et al, 2011
  1013. PABPN1 poly(A) binding protein, nuclear 1 binds to NS1 Chen et al, 1999
  1014. PAF1 binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1015. PAICS siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1016. PAK1 Component of the virus-induced IRF3 activating pathway Ehrhardt et al, 2004.
  1017. PAK2 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1018. PAK3 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1019. PALM2 paralemmin 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1020. PANK4 pantothenate kinase 4 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1021. PAOX polyamine oxidase (exo-N4-amino) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
    1. Oxidised polyamines (spermine, spermidine ) exert antiviral effects via ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and aminoaldehyde generation Bachrach 2007
  1022. PAPOLA facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1023. PAQR8 progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VIII (Progesterone receptor) (Ex C6orf33) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1024. PARP1 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 required by both H1N1 and H5N1 polymerases Bortz et al, 2011. Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1025. PARP10 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 10: Binds to NS1 Yu et al, 2011
  1026. PART1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1027. PASD1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1028. PBK PDZ binding kinase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1029. PC facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1030. PCBD1 pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1031. PCCB propionyl Coenzyme A carboxylase, beta polypeptide : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1032. PCDH18 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1033. PCMT1 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1034. PCNA proliferating cell nuclear antigen: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1035. PCSK7 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1036. PDGFRA platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide: Inhibition suppresses viral replication Kumar et al, 2011
  1037. PDGFRB platelet-derived growth factor receptor, beta polypeptide: Inhibition suppresses viral replication Kumar et al, 2011
  1038. PDK3 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1039. PDLIM2 PDZ and LIM domain 2 (mystique) interacts with H1N1 NS1 Yu et al, 2011
  1040. PDSS2 prenyl (decaprenyl) diphosphate synthase, subunit 2: Downregulated by H5N1 infection in chicken or canine cell lines Balasubramaniam et al, 2011
  1041. PEN2 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1042. PEPD peptidase D: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1043. PEX5L facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1044. PFDN2 Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1045. PHF2 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1046. PHGDHL1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1047. PIK3C3 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1048. PIK3C2A binds to NP Shapira et al, 2009
  1049. PIK3C2G siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1050. PIK3CB siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1051. PIK3R2 phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2 (beta) binds to NS1, activating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling Hale et al, 2006.
  1052. PIK3R4 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1053. PIK3R5 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1054. PIN1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1055. PIP5K1C Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1056. PKD1 polycystic kidney disease 1 (autosomal dominant) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1057. PJA2 praja ring finger 2: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1058. PKD2L2 polycystic kidney disease 2-like 2: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1059. PKD1 polycystic kidney disease 1 (autosomal dominant) Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1060. PLAC8 placenta-specific 8 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1061. PLAT plasminogen activator, tissue: (Viral): The hemagglutinin protein has homology with plasminogen activators and possesses anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activities which affects the blood clotting factors fibrinogen and factor XIII in vitro and in vivo Zhilinskaia et al, 1996
  1062. PLAUR plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor (Viral): See PLAT Zhilinskaia et al, 1996
  1063. PLAU plasminogen activator, urokinase: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1064. PLCB1 phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific): facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1065. PLCG1 phospholipase C, gamma 1: Itk/PLCG1 signaling is activated by viral infection in T cells Fan et al, 2012 . Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1066. PLD2 phospholipase D2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1067. PLEC plectin facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1068. PLG plasminogen binds to neuraminidase Goto et al, 2001
  1069. PLK3 polo-like kinase 3: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1070. PLK4 polo-like kinase 4: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1071. PLSCR1phospholipid scramblase 1: Primary dendritic cells from PLSCR1-deficient mice produced lower amount of type 1 IFN than wild-type mice in response to herpes simplex virus and influenza A virus Talukder et al, 2012
  1072. PML promyelocytic leukemia binds to NS1 Shapira et al, 2009 depletion increases susceptibility to infection Li et al, 2009
  1073. PNMA1 paraneoplastic antigen MA1: binds to viral PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1074. POLR2A polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1075. POLR2ACSK1B polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1076. POLR2B polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide B, 140kDa: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1077. POLR2H polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide H: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1078. POLR2L polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide L, 7.6kDa: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1079. POLR3F polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide F, 39 kDa: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1080. POLA1 polymerase (DNA directed), alpha 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1081. POLK polymerase (DNA directed) kappafacilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1082. POLR2C polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide C, 33kDa: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1083. PPP1R12C protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 12C : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1084. PPP1R14D protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14D: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1085. PPP2R2B protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, beta: binds to NP Shapira et al, 2009
  1086. PPP2R5C protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1087. PPP6C protein phosphatase 6, catalytic subunit: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1088. PPIA peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A) binds to M1 Liu et al, 2009 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1089. PPIE peptidylprolyl isomerase E (cyclophilin E) negatively regulates viral replication Wang et al, 2011
  1090. PPIF peptidylprolyl isomerase F : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1091. PPP6C protein phosphatase 6, catalytic subunit: cellular factor required for efficient virus replication: York et al, 2014
  1092. PRADC1 protease-associated domain containing 1 (Ex C2orf7) siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 201
  1093. PRDX1 peroxiredoxin 1 virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  1094. PRDX2 component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1095. PRF1 perforin 1 (pore forming protein): plays a role in the host defense system by inducing apoptosis of virus-infected cells Liu et al, 2003
  1096. PRKAA1 protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit : essential for T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cell development and primary T cell responses to viral and bacterial infections Blagih et al, 2015
  1097. PRKACA protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1098. PRKAG2 protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 2 non-catalytic subunit: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1099. PRKCA protein kinase C, alpha phosphorylates the PB1-F2 protein Mitzner et al, 2009 . component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1100. PRKCB protein kinase C, beta regulates late endosomal sorting of the virus Sieczkarski et al, 2003
  1101. PRKCD protein kinase C, delta: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1102. PRKCI protein kinase C, iota : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1103. PRKD3 protein kinase D3: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1104. PRKDC protein kinase, DNA activated, catalytic polypeptide: binds to NP Shapira et al, 2009 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1105. PRKRA protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1106. PRM1 protamine 1 natural polycations such as protamine, histones H1, H2A, H2B and H3 cause clustering of the influenza viral particles Antohi et al, 1983
  1107. PRM2 protamine 2 Viral particles have very high affinity for protamine Antohi et al 1984
  1108. PRMT1 protein arginine methyltransferase 1binds to the viral nucleoprotein (Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2010 Aug;26(8):1037-41. Chinese.)
  1109. PRMT5 protein arginine methyltransferase 5: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1110. Prostaglandin A1 inhibits avian influenza virus replication Carta et al, 2014
  1111. Prostaglandin E2: upregulated by infection , causing inhibition of type I interferon production and apoptosis in macrophages, thereby causing an increase in virus replication Coulombe et al, 2014.
  1112. PRPF6 PRP6 pre-mRNA processing factor 6 homolog (S. cerevisiae): Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1113. PRPF8 PRP8 pre-mRNA processing factor 8 homolog (S. cerevisiae) : siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1114. PRPH2 retinal degeneration, slow : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1115. PRPS1 phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1116. PRSS1 protease, serine, 1 (trypsin 1) cleaves the viral haemaglutinin Cleeland and Sugg, 1963
  1117. PRSS27 protease, serine 27 (pancreasin) (Ex MPN) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1118. PRSS35 protease, serine, 35: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1119. PSAP prosaposin: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1120. PSENEN presenilin enhancer 2 homolog (C. elegans): iRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1121. PSMA1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1122. PSMA7 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 7: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1123. PSMB1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 1: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1124. PSMB9 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 9 (large multifunctional peptidase 2) Influences antigen processing : Knockout mice generate fewer influenza nucleoprotein-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors Van Kaer et al, 1994
  1125. PSMC1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 1: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1126. PSMC6 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 6: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1127. PSMD1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1128. PSMD2 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1129. PSMD3 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 3 : Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1130. PSMD8 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 8: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1131. PSMD9 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 9: (p27) siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1132. PSMD14 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 1:siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1133. PSME2 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 2 (PA28 beta) : binds to the nucleoprotein from a swine and human influenza virus Generous et al, 2014
  1134. PTAFR platelet-activating factor receptor regulates infleunnza lung injury and death Garcia et al, 2010
  1135. PTBP1 polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1136. PTCH1 patched 1 regulates infection Li et al, 2009
  1137. PTGER2 prostaglandin E receptor 2 :Inhibition improved survival against lethal viral infection Coulombe et al, 2014
  1138. PTGER4 prostaglandin E receptor 4: Inhibition improved survival against lethal viral infection Coulombe et al, 2014
  1139. PTGES prostaglandin E synthase: Knockout improved survival against lethal viral infection Coulombe et al, 2014
  1140. PTGES3 prostaglandin E synthase 3 (cytosolic) (hsp90 chaperone) associates with the viral polymerase Ge et al, 2011 Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1141. PTGS1 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 COX-1 deficiency is detrimental in infection Carey et al, 2005
  1142. PTGS2 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 COX-2 deficiency is beneficial to the host during influenza viral infection Carey et al, 2005.
    1. Aspirin blocks viral propagation via effects on NFKB1 Mazur et al, 2007
  1143. PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (fak) : regulates viral entry Elbahesh et al, 2014
  1144. PTMA prothymosin, alpha : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1145. PTPMT1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, mitochondrial 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1146. PTPRM protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, M :protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, N
  1147. PTPRN protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, NsiRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1148. PTRF Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1149. PTS 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 201
  1150. PTX3 pentraxin 3, long: Possesses antiviral activity Reading et al, 2008
  1151. PURB purine-rich element binding protein : binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1152. PYCARD PYD and CARD domain containing: The influenza immune response and mortality is reduced in Nlrp3, Pycard, or caspase-1 knockout mice Allen et al, 2009 component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1153. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binds to the viral transcriptase Romanos and Hay, 1984
  1154. QTRT1 queuine tRNA-ribosyltransferase 1: binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1155. RAB1B RAB1B, member RAS oncogene family:Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1156. RAB6B RAB6B, member RAS oncogene family: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1157. RAB11A RAB11A, member RAS oncogene family transports the viral genome to the cell surface Eisfeld et al, 2011
  1158. RAB11B RAB11B, member RAS oncogene family: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1159. RAB17 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1160. RAB32 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1161. RABEP1 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1162. RABGAP1 RAB GTPase activating protein 1 (Ex FLJ12346) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1163. RABGEF1 RAB guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 1 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1164. RAC1 ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1) Component of the virus-induced IRF3 activating pathway Ehrhardt et al, 2004.
  1165. RACGAP1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1166. RAD51L1 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1167. RAD54L RAD54-like (S. cerevisiae) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1168. RAE1 RAE1 RNA export 1 homolog (S. pombe) NS1 forms an inhibitory complex with NXF1/TAP, p15/NXT, Rae1/mrnp41, and E1B-AP5
  1169. RAF1 v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 Inhibition of Raf signalling results in nuclear retention of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes , impaired function of the nuclear-export protein (NEP/NS2) and inhibition of virus production Pleschka et al, 2001
  1170. RANBP3 RAN binding protein 3 involved in viral RNP nuclear export Predicala and Zhou, 2013.
  1171. RANBP6 RAN binding protein 6: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1172. RANBP9 RAN binding protein 9: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1173. RARRES3 retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 3 (|RIG1) ubiquitination blocked by NS1 viral protein
  1174. RARS arginyl-tRNA synthetase : Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1175. RARS2 arginyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1176. RB1 Retinoblastoma 1The polymerase PB1-contact site on Ebp1 (PA2G4) overlaps with the interaction site with ErbB3, the androgen receptor (AR) and the retinoblastoma gene product Honda et al, 2007
  1177. RBCK1 chromosome 20 open reading frame 18 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1178. RBM3 RNA binding motif (RNP1, RRM) protein 3: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1179. RBM5 RNA binding motif protein 5 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1180. RBM14 RNA binding motif protein 14 enhances the activity of the viral polymerase Bortz et al, 2011 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1181. RBM42 RNA binding motif protein 42 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1182. RBPMS RNA binding protein with multiple splicing: binds to viral M2,PB1,PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1183. RCC1 regulator of chromosome condensation 1 viral ribonucleoprotein complexes bind to chromatin (export controlled by RCC1 and XPO1 (crm1) Chase et al, 2011
  1184. REL v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (avian): Modulates the antibody response to the virus Harling-McNabb et al, 1999
  1185. RELA v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (avian) (p65) RELA binds to PB1,M1,M2,PB2 Shapira et al, 2009 knockdown reduces viral replication and RNA synthesis Kumar et al, 2008.
  1186. RELN Reelin : Influenza infection in day 9 pregnant mice reduces the expression of reelin in day 0 neonatal brain Fatemi et al, 1999
  1187. RETN resistin siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1188. REV3L REV3-like, catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta (yeast) : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1189. RFFL ring finger and FYVE-like domain containing 1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1190. RFNG RFNG O-fucosylpeptide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1191. RFX3 regulatory factor X, 3 (influences HLA class II expression): facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1192. RGNEF 190 kDa guanine nucleotide exchange factor : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1193. RGS2 regulator of G-protein signaling 2, 24kDa : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1194. RGS4 regulator of G-protein signaling 4: Expression upregulated in the brains of infected mice Beraki et al, 2005
  1195. RHOA ras homolog gene family, member A: binds to PB2,M2,PB1,M1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1196. RICTOR RPTOR independent companion of MTOR, complex 2: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1197. RING1 ring finger protein 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1198. RIOK3 RIO kinase 3: knockdown of RIOK3 inhibits cellular antiviral responses against both DNA and RNA viruses (herpesvirus and influenza A virus) Feng et al, 2014
  1199. RIPK2 receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2: binds to PB2,NP,PB1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1200. RNASE2 ribonuclease, RNase A family, 2 (liver, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin) Leukotriene b4 exerts antiviral effects by increasing the relase of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidiand eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (RNASE2): Effects mediated via LTB4R : Gaudreault and Gosselin , 2008
  1201. RNASEK ribonuclease, RNase K: .Required for endocytosis and replication of Rhinovirus, Influenza A Virus, & Dengue Virus Perreira et al, 2015.
  1202. RNASEL ribonuclease L (2',5'-oligoisoadenylate synthetase-dependent): IFN-beta-induced antiviral activity is due predominantly to the activation of RNase L Min and Krug,2006
  1203. RNF5 ring finger protein 5: binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1204. RNF43 ring finger protein 43: the nucleoprotein of influenza A virus induces p53 signaling and apoptosis via attenuation of ubiquitin ligase RNF43 Nailwal et al, 2015.
  1205. RNF150 ring finger protein 150: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1206. ROBO4 roundabout homolog 4, magic roundabout (Drosophila): Regulates the cytokine storm London et al, 2010
  1207. ROCK1 Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1208. ROGDI rogdi homolog (Drosophila) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1209. ROR2 receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1210. RPA1 replication protein A1, 70kDa: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1211. RPL5 ribosomal protein L5 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007 Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1212. RPL8 ribosomal protein L8: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1213. RPL9 ribosomal protein L9: interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1214. RPL10A Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1215. RPL11 ribosomal protein L11 : Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1216. RPL14 Downregulated by H5N1 infection in chicken or canine cell lines Balasubramaniam et al, 2011
  1217. C1QTNF9B C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 9B (Ex RP11-45B20.2) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1218. RPL34 ribosomal protein L34: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1219. RPL35 ribosomal protein L35: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1220. RPL36 ribosomal protein L36: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1221. RPLP0 ribosomal protein, large, P0: interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1222. RPS3 ribosomal protein S3: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1223. RPS3A ribosomal protein S3A: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1224. RPS5 ribosomal protein S5 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
    1. siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
    2. Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1225. RPS6KA2 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1226. RPS6KA3 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 3 RPS6KA3 binds to NA,HA,PB2 Shapira et al, 2009 knockdown increases viral polymerase activity and viral growth Kakugawa et al, 2009
  1227. RPS6KA4 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 4: binds to NP Shapira et al, 2009
  1228. RPS6KA5 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 5 : binds to NP Shapira et al, 2009
  1229. RPS7 ribosomal protein S7 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1230. RPS9 ribosomal protein S9: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1231. RPS10 ribosomal protein S10: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1232. RPS14 ribosomal protein S14: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1233. RPS16 ribosomal protein S16: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1234. RPS20 ribosomal protein S20: ribosomal protein S20 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1235. RPS24 ribosomal protein S24: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1236. RPS27A ribosomal protein S27a: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1237. RRBP1 ribosome binding protein 1 homolog 180kDa: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1238. RRP1B ribosomal RNA processing 1B : Enhances the Recruitment of Cellular mRNA in Influenza Virus Transcription Su et al, 2015.
  1239. RRP12 ribosomal RNA processing 12 homolog (S. cerevisiae): binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1240. RSAD2 radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 (viperin)Viperin binds to farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) inhibits influenza virus release by perturbing lipid rafts Wang et al, 2007
  1241. RTN4 reticulon 4 (nogo) Downregulated by H5N1 infection in chicken or canine cell lines Balasubramaniam et al, 2011
  1242. RUNX1 runt-related transcription factor 1siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1243. RUVBL1 RuvB-like 1 (E. coli): binds to PA,NP Shapira et al, 2009
  1244. RUVBL2 RuvB-like 2 (E. coli) interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1245. RXRA retinoid X receptor, alpha: binds to PB1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1246. RYBP RING1 and YY1 binding protein : binds to PB1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1247. S100A8 S100 calcium binding protein A8: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1248. S100A9 S100 calcium binding protein A9: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1249. SAE1 SUMO1 activating enzyme subunit 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1250. SAFB scaffold attachment factor B: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1251. PPP6R1 protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 1(SAPS1) Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1252. SARNP SAP domain containing ribonucleoprotein (Ex CIP29) facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1253. SARS seryl-tRNA synthetase: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1254. SCN3A sodium channel, voltage-gated, type III, alpha subunit : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1255. SCN8A sodium channel, voltage gated, type VIII, alpha subunit : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1256. SCNN1D sodium channel, nonvoltage-gated 1, delta: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1257. SCNN1G sodium channel, nonvoltage-gated 1, gamma: The virus inhibits alveolar epithelial ENaC function, vila PLCG1, SRC and protein kinase C reducing transepithelial fluid clearance Chen et al, 2004
  1258. SCRIB scribbled homolog (Drosophila) associates with NS1 Liu et al, 2010
  1259. SDC1 syndecan 1: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1260. SDCBP2 syndecan binding protein (syntenin) 2: binds to viral M1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1261. SDPR serum deprivation response: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1262. SECISBP2 SECIS binding protein 2 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1263. Selenium exerts antiviral effects Yu et al, 2011
  1264. SELPLG selectin P ligand: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1265. SEMA3A ema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig), short basic domain, secreted, (semaphorin) 3A : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1266. SEPT1 binds to viral NS1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1267. SEPT9 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1268. SERPINA1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010 , component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1269. SERPINB1 regulates inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in influenza infection Gong et al, 2011.
  1270. SERPINB2 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1271. SERPINE1 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1 inhibits viral glycoprotein cleavage Dittmann et al, 2015
  1272. SET binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1273. SETBP1 binds to viral M2 protein Shapira et al, 2009
  1274. SF3A1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1275. SF3A3 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1276. SF3B1 splicing factor 3b, subunit 1, 155kDa: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1277. SF3B14 splicing factor 3B, 14 kDa subunit: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1278. SFPQ splicing factor proline/glutamine-rich enhances the activity of the viral polymerase Bortz et al, 2011
  1279. SFRS1 serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1280. SFTPA1 surfactant protein A1 binds to the virus Malhotra et al, 1994
  1281. SFTPB siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1282. SFTPD surfactant protein D inhibits the infectivity of influenza A virus Crouch et al, 2005
  1283. SFXN3 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1284. SGCA sarcoglycan, alpha (50kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein) :: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1285. SGK1 serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase : Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1286. SGK196 protein kinase-like protein SgK196 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1287. SGPL1 sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1 regulates viral propagation and virulence Seo et al, 2010
  1288. SIAH1 binds to viral PB1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009 : Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1289. SIAH2 seven in absentia homolog 2 (Drosophila) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1290. SIAH1 seven in absentia homolog 1 (Drosophila) associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1291. S1PR1 sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (endothelial) agonists reduce mortality caused by the H1N1 virus in mice, Walsh et al, 2011
  1292. SIGLEC5 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1293. SIGMAR1 sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1294. Sirtuins SIRT1, SIRT2 SIRT3 SIRT4 SIRT5 SIRT6 SIRT7 exert broad antiviral activity, influenza virus included Koyuncu et al, 2014
  1295. SNW1 (ex SKIIP) SNW domain containing 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1296. SLC2A1 solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 1 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1297. SLC6A19 solute carrier family 6 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 19 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1298. SLC9A3R1 solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 3 regulator 1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1299. SLC12A4 solute carrier family 12 (potassium/chloride transporters), member 4: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1300. SLC22A6 solute carrier family 22 (organic anion transporter), member 6: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1301. SLC22A8 – solute carrier family 22 (organic anion transporter), member 8: required to support influenza A virus replication Perwitasari et al, 2013
  1302. SLC25A1 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; citrate transporter), member 1: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1303. SLC25A6 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6: solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6 interacts with the viral PB1-F2 protein inducing mitochobrial0related apoptosis (cytochrome C release etc) Zamarin et al, 2005
  1304. SLC25A11 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; oxoglutarate carrier), member 11: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1305. SLC25A12 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, Aralar), member 12Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1306. SLC25A13 solute carrier family 25, member 13 (citrin) Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1307. SLC25A24 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 24: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1308. SLC25A25 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 25 : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1309. SLC30A9 solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 9: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009 binds to the nucleoprotein from a swine and human influenza virus Generous et al, 2014
  1310. SLC48A1 solute carrier family 48 (heme transporter), member 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1311. SLIRP SRA stem-loop interacting RNA binding protein: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1312. SLIT2 slit homolog 2 (Drosophila)Regulates the cytokine storm London et al, 2010
  1313. SMARCB1 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1 : Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1314. SMARCD3 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 3 :Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1315. SMC1A structural maintenance of chromosomes 1A: binds to NP Shapira et al, 2009
  1316. SMG1 PI-3-kinase-related kinase SMG-1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1317. SMU1 smu-1 suppressor of mec-8 and unc-52 homolog (C. elegans): siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1318. SNAPC4 small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 4, 190kDa: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1319. SNCA synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor) phosphorylated in cerebral areasof infection Jang et al, 2009
  1320. SNRNP70 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 70kDa (U1) siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1321. SNRPA1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide A' : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1322. SNRPF small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide F : siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1323. SNW1 SNW domain containing 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010 . . facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1324. SNX6 sorting nexin 6: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1325. SNX9 sorting nexin 9: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1326. SOCS1 suppressor of cytokine signaling 1: negatively regulates the innate immune response triggered by the virus Pothlichet et al, 2008
  1327. SOCS2 suppressor of cytokine signaling 2
  1328. SOCS3 suppressor of cytokine signaling 3: negatively regulates the innate immune response triggered by the virus Pothlichet et al, 2008
  1329. SOD1 viral PB1-F2 overexpression resulted in SOD1 diminishment and ROS enhancement in alveolar epithelial cells Shin et al, 2015,
  1330. SOD2 superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial (Mn-Sod) The virus induces the respiratory burst and superoxide production in neutrophils Mills et al, 1981 and increases the expression of SOD2 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in lung epithelial cells , as does IFNG Jacoby and Choi, 1994 Recombinant SOD2 reduced viral mortality in mice Sidwell et al, 1996
  1331. SON SON DNA binding protein involved in virion traffic to late endosomes Karlas et al, 2010
    1. siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1332. SOSTDC1 sclerostin domain containing 1: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1333. SP100 SP100 nuclear antigen associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1334. SPATA2L spermatogenesis associated 2-like (Ex MGC26885) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1335. SPHK1 sphingosine kinase 1: regulates viral propagation and virulence Seo et al, 2010
  1336. SPINT2 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1337. SPN Sialophorin (CD43) Viral receptor Hartshorn et al, 1995 . component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1338. SPNS1 spinster homolog 1 (Drosophila) : Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1339. SPON2 spondin 2, extracellular matrix protein (Mindin) : Promotes the intranasal clearance of the virus Jia et al, 2008
  1340. SPRYD4 SPRY domain containing 4: (Ex LOC283377) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1341. SQRDL sulfide quinone reductase-like: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1342. SQSTM1 involved in the autophagy response to the virus Law et al, 2010
  1343. SRC v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (avian) essential for macrophage inflammasome activation during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1344. SRP68 signal recognition particle 68kDa interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1345. SRRM2 serine/arginine repetitive matrix 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1346. SRSF1 serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 binds to the mRNA of viral M1 Shih and Krug, 1996
  1347. SRSF3 serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1348. SSBP2 single-stranded DNA binding protein 2: binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1349. SSH3 slingshot homolog 3 (Drosophila) : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1350. TSSK6 testis-specific serine kinase 6 (Ex SSTK) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1351. SSTR5 somatostatin receptor 5: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1352. SSX2IP synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint 2 interacting protein: binds to NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1353. ST3GAL4 ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 4 siRNA knockdown decreases infection Monteerarat et al, 2010
  1354. ST6GAL1 ST6 beta-galactosamide alpha-2,6-sialyltranferase 1: Knockout reduces the early influenza-specific increase in IgM and IgG levels in the serum Zeng et al, 2009
  1355. ST6GALNAC6 ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 6 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1356. STAB1 stabilin 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1357. STAT1 signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 91kDaH5N1 NS1 reduces IFN-inducible tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 Jia et al, 2010. . STAT1 binds to PB2,NP Shapira et al, 2009 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1358. STAT2 signal transducer and activator of transcription 2, 113kDa: H5N1 NS1 reduces IFN-inducible tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 Jia et al, 2010.
  1359. STAT3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor): facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1360. STAU1 staufen, RNA binding protein, homolog 1 (Drosophila) interacts with influenza virus ribonucleoproteins and is required for viral multiplication De Lucas et al, 2010 STAU1 binds to M1,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009 Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1361. STIP1 stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009 Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1362. STK31 serine/threonine kinase 31 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1363. STK39 serine threonine kinase 39:Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1364. STOM Stomatin Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1365. STX5 syntaxin 5 : binds to viral NS1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1366. STX7 syntaxin 7: UVRAG mediates viral endocytic transport and membrane penetration through interactions with the class C vacuolar protein sorting (C-Vps) tethering complex and endosomal glutamine-containing SNAREs [syntaxin 7 (STX7), STX8, and vesicle transport through t-SNARE homolog 1B (Vti1b)]: Pirooz et al, 2014
  1367. STX8 syntaxin 8: UVRAG mediates viral endocytic transport and membrane penetration through interactions with the class C vacuolar protein sorting (C-Vps) tethering complex and endosomal glutamine-containing SNAREs [syntaxin 7 (STX7), STX8, and vesicle transport through t-SNARE homolog 1B (Vti1b)]: Pirooz et al, 2014
  1368. STX10 syntaxin 10: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1369. STXBP1 syntaxin binding protein 1: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1370. STXBP4 syntaxin binding protein 4: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1371. SULF2 sulfatase 2siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1372. Sulphatide binds to the virus and inhibits infection Suzuki et al, 1996
  1373. SULT2B1 sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 2B, member 1 aclivateed in the lungs of infected mice Chen et al, 2011
  1374. SUMO1 SMT3 suppressor of mif two 3 homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae) Modifies the NS1 protein Xu et al, 2011 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1375. SUMO1P1 SUMO1 pseudogene 1: binds to NS2
  1376. SUMO2 SMT3 suppressor of mif two 3 homolog 2 (S. cerevisiae): Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1377. SUMO3 SMT3 suppressor of mif two 3 homolog 3 (S. cerevisiae): Sumo 1, 2 and 3 SUMOylate the NS1 protein Santos et al, 2013
  1378. SUMO4 SMT3 suppressor of mif two 3 homolog 4 (S. cerevisiae): Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1379. SUPT3H suppressor of Ty 3 homolog (S. cerevisiae) : facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1380. SUPT5H suppressor of Ty 5 homolog (S. cerevisiae) : binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1381. SUPT6H suppressor of Ty 6 homolog (S. cerevisiae) : siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1382. SUZ12 suppressor of zeste 12 homolog (Drosophila): facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1383. SYCE2 synaptonemal complex central element protein 2 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1384. SYNGAP1 synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein 1 homolog (rat) : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1385. TACC1 transforming, acidic coiled-coil containing protein 1: binds to viral PB2 protein Shapira et al, 2009
  1386. TAF6 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 80kDa: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1387. TAMM41 mitochondrial translocator assembly and maintenance protein, homolog (S. cerevisiae) (Ex MGC16471) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1388. TAOK1 TAO kinase 1: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1389. TAOK3 TAO kinase 3: binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009
  1390. TAP1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP): Regulates influenza (and many other) antigen processing Tewari et al, 2005
  1391. TAPT1 transmembrane anterior posterior transformation 1: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1392. TARBP2 TAR (HIV-1) RNA binding protein 2 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1393. TASP1 taspase, threonine aspartase, 1: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1394. TBC1D1 TBC1 (tre-2/USP6, BUB2, cdc16) domain family, member 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1395. TBK1 TANK-binding kinase 1: IFN-a production during RNA virus infection is mediated by the master transcription factor IRF7, which is activated upon ubiquitination by TRAF6 and phosphorylation by IKKe and TBK1 kinases Young et al, 2011.
  1396. TBL2 transducin (beta)-like 2: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1397. TBL3 transducin (beta)-like 3: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1398. TBX21 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1399. TCF3 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1400. TCF12 transcription factor 12 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1401. TCP1 t-complex 1 [: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1402. TEAD3 TEA domain family member 3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1403. TELO2 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1404. TF Transferrin possesses antiviral properties Shuratov and Kosiakov, 1975
  1405. TFAP2A binds to PB1,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1406. TFAP2C binds to PB1,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1407. TFCP2 transcription factor CP2 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1408. TFDP1 binds to PB1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1409. TFE3 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1410. TFRC component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1411. TGFB1 component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1412. THOC4 THO complex 4 (ALY/REF) associates with viral mRNA Bier et al, 2011
  1413. TICAM1 toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1: binds to PB2,NP Shapira et al, 2009
  1414. TIMM44 translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 44 homolog : siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1415. TIMM50 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1416. TIPIN TIMELESS interacting protein (Ex FLJ20516) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1417. TK2 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1418. TLR2 toll-like receptor 2: component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1419. TLR3 toll-like receptor 3: regulates the immune response to influenza infection Guillot et al, 2005
  1420. TLR4 toll-like receptor 4 : TLR4 knockout protects mice from H1N1 influenza A virus-induced lethality Nhu et al, 2010
  1421. TLR7 TLR7 and MYD88 control interferon production in response to the virus Diebold et al, 2004
  1422. TLR8 component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1423. TLR10 toll-like receptor 10: involved in induction of innate immune responses to influenza virus infection Lee et al, 2014.
  1424. TMEM86B binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1425. TMPRSS2 transmembrane protease, serine 2 and TMPRSS4 facilitate trypsin-independent spread of the virus in Caco-2 cells Bertram et al, 2010.
  1426. TMPRSS4 transmembrane protease, serine 4 facilitate trypsin-independent spread of the virus in Caco-2 cells Bertram et al, 2010.
  1427. TMPRSS11D transmembrane protease, serine 11D (hat) inhibitors were able to suppress influenza virus replication in a HAT-expressing MDCK cell model Sielaff et al, 2011.
  1428. TMPRSS13 transmembrane protease, serine 13 processes the viral surface envelope glycoprotein hemagglutinin Okumura et al, 2010
  1429. TNC siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1430. TNF the RNA binding domain of the NS1 protein regulates IL6, IFNB and TNF expression Newby et al, 2007
  1431. TNFAIP2 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1432. TNFAIP3 tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 3: Deficiency in myeloid cells protects against infection Maelfait et al, 2012.
  1433. TNFRSF1A tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1a: TNF-a receptor signalling increases the severity of 1918 virus infection in mice Belisle et al, 2010
  1434. TNFRSF1B tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1b "" Belisle et al, 2010
  1435. TNFSF13 tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 13: regulates influenza virus RNA synthesis from cRNA Sugiyama et al, 2015.
  1436. TNFRSF4 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (OX40) Regulates the immune response to infection Dawicki et al, 2004
  1437. TNFRSF9 binds to PB2,NP Shapira et al, 2009
  1438. TNFRSF10B tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10b (TRAIL receptor) Controls viral infection Brincks et al, 2008
  1439. TNFRSF18 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 18: TNFRSF18 binds to PB2,NP siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1440. TNFRSF25 binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009
  1441. TNFSF9 tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 9 :Plays a role in viral infection Lin et al, 2009
  1442. TNFSF10 tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 10 (TRAIL) an important regulator of infection Brincks et al, 2008 activated in in H5N1 virus-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages Ekchariyawat et al, 2012
  1443. TNK2 tyrosine kinase, non-receptor, 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1444. TNPO1 transportin 1: Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1445. TNPO3 transportin 3 :Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1446. TOMM40 translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog: viral protein PB1-F2 translocates into mitochondria via Tomm40 channels and impairs innate immunity Yoshizumi et al, 2014.
  1447. TOP1MT topoisomerase (DNA) I, mitochondrial : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1448. TOP2A binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1449. TOP2B TOP2A binds to PB1,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009 binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1450. TP53 tumor protein p53 TP53 binds to PB2,NS1,PB1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1451. TPD52L3 tumor protein D52-like 3 (NYD-SP25) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1452. TPM1 Tropomyosin 1 virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  1453. TPM3 Tropomyosin 3 Virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  1454. TPM4 Tropomyosin 4 Virion component (proteomics study) Shaw et al, 2008
  1455. TPT1 tumor protein, translationally-controlled 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1456. TRAF1 TNF receptor-associated factor 1 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1457. TRAF2 TNF receptor-associated factor 2: binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009
  1458. TRA@ T cell receptor alpha locus: Immune defence against invading pathogens, including influenza Kulkarni et al, 2010
  1459. TRA2B transformer 2 beta homolog : binds to the nucleoprotein from a swine and human influenza virus Generous et al, 2014
  1460. TRB@ T cell receptor beta locus Immune defence against invading pathogens, including influenza Kulkarni et al, 2010
  1461. TRAF2 TNF receptor-associated factor 2 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1462. TRAF6 TRAF6 binds to PB2 Shapira et al, 2009 IFN-a production during RNA virus infection is mediated by the master transcription factor IRF7, which is activated upon ubiquitination by TRAF6 and phosphorylation by IKKe and TBK1 kinases Young et al, 2011.
  1463. TRAM1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1464. TRAP1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1465. TRDMT1 tRNA aspartic acid methyltransferase 1 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1466. TRERF1 transcriptional regulating factor 1: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1467. TRIB2 tribbles homolog 2 (Drosophila) : siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1468. TICAM1 toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 (Ex TRIF) DDX1, DDX21, and DHX36 helicases form a complex with the adaptor molecule TRIF to sense dsRNA in dendritic cells Zhang et al, 2011.
  1469. TRIM14 tripartite motif containing 14: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1470. TRIM21 tripartite motif containing 21: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1471. TRIM22 tripartite motif containing 22: targets the viral nucleoprotein for degradation Di Pietro et al, 2013
  1472. TRIM25 tripartite motif containing 25 binds to NS1 Kuo et al, 2010
  1473. TRIM27 tripartite motif containing 27: Shapira et al, 2009
  1474. TRIM28 tripartite motif-containing 28 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010 : Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1475. TRIM29 : Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1476. TRIM32 : Senses and restricts Influenza A Virus by ubiquitination of the viral PB1 Polymerase Fu et al, 2015.
  1477. TRIM60 tripartite motif containing 60: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1478. TRIM63 tripartite motif containing 63: binds to PB1,NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1479. TRIP6 thyroid hormone receptor interactor 6 associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1480. TRIP12 thyroid hormone receptor interactor 12: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1481. TRPV2 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 2: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1482. TRPV6 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6: Downregulated by H5N1 infection in chicken or canine cell lines Balasubramaniam et al, 2011
  1483. TSG101 – tumor susceptibility 101: facilitates viral traffic through the cellular endosomal sorting complex Sanyal et al, 2013
  1484. TSSK6 testis-specific serine kinase 6: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1485. TTC12 tetratricopeptide repeat domain 12: binds to viral PB1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1486. TTF2 transcription termination factor, RNA polymerase II: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1487. TUBA1A tubulin, alpha 1a acetylation increared in infected cells Husain and Harrod, 2011
  1488. TUBB tubulin, beta class I: Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010 : Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1489. TUBB2A tubulin, beta 2A interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1490. TUBB2C tubulin, beta 2C interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1491. TUBB3 tubulin, beta 3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1492. TUBB5 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1493. TUBG2 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1494. TXK TXK tyrosine kinase : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1495. TXN thioredoxin: Increased Trx1 targeted to cell nuclei can increases infection severity of disease responses by potentiation of redox-sensitive transcription factor activation (NFKB1) Go et al, 2011.
  1496. TXNDC11 thioredoxin domain containing 11 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1497. TXNIP thioredoxin interacting protein: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1498. TXNL4A thioredoxin-like 4A siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1499. U2AF2 U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1500. UBAC2 UBA domain containing 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
    1. Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1501. UBB binds to the H5N1 strain NS1 protein Ngamurulert et al, 2009
  1502. UBC ubiquitin C: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1503. UBE2I ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2I associates with the viral polymerase Shapira et al, 2010
  1504. UBQLN4 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1505. UBR2 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1506. UBR4 ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 4 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1507. UBR5 ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 5:Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1508. UBXD3 UBX domain containing 3 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1509. UBXN10 UBX domain protein 10 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1510. UGT8 UDP glycosyltransferase 8:
  1511. UNCX UNC homeobox : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1512. UQCRC2 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1513. UQCRSF1 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1514. UROS binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1515. USE1 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1516. USHBP1 binds to viral PB1,PB2 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1517. USMG5 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1518. USP1 ubiquitin specific peptidase 1 overexpression inhibits viral genomic RNA replication Liao et al, 2010
  1519. USP9X Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1520. USP10 ubiquitin specific peptidase 10 interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1521. USP19 ubiquitin specific peptidase 19 : Depletion of USP19 or Beclin-1 inhibits autophagic flux and promotes type I interferon signaling as well as cellular antiviral immunity Jin et al, 2016.
  1522. USP42 siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1523. UVRAG UV radiation resistance associated: UVRAG mediates viral endocytic transport and membrane penetration through interactions with the class C vacuolar protein sorting (C-Vps) tethering complex and endosomal glutamine-containing SNAREs [syntaxin 7 (STX7), STX8, and vesicle transport through t-SNARE homolog 1B (Vti1b)]: Pirooz et al, 2014
  1524. UXT ubiquitously-expressed, prefoldin-like chaperone: binds to polymerase 3P complex Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1525. VAPA VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein A, 33kDa : IFITM3 interacts with VAPA and prevents its association with OSBP, disrupting intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and inhibiting viral entry Amini-Bavil-Olyaee et al, 2013
  1526. VCL Vinculin The virus modified vinculin and vimentin phosphorylation Wheeler et al, 1990
  1527. VCP valosin containing protein: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1528. VDAC1 voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (implicated in the mitochondrial permeability transition during apoptosis) binds to the PB1-F2 protein Zamarin et al, 2005
  1529. VDAC3 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1530. VEGFB vascular endothelial growth factor B : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1531. VIP vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: Viral proteins are homologous to VIP Zhilinskaia et al, 1991 and VIP increases IFNG production by antigen-stimulated type 1 helper T cells Jabrane-Ferrat et al, 1999
  1532. VIPR1vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1: VIPR1 and VIPR2 were both found in subsets of lymph node T cells from mice with T cell receptors specific for an influenza hemagglutinin, after cytokine treatment Jabrane-Ferrat et al, 1999
  1533. VIPR2 vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2: "" Jabrane-Ferrat et al, 1999
  1534. Vitamin C: Ascorbic acid weakly inhibits viral multiplication: Dehydroascorbic acid is more effective and the effects of ascorbate are enhanced by Fe3+ ferric ions in vitro Furuya et al, 2008
  1535. Vitamin D deficiency may confer increased risk of influenza and respiratory tract infection.Beard et al, 2011
  1536. VNN2 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1537. VIM vimentin interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1538. VPS4 dominant-negative VPS4 causes arrest of viruses in endosome-like populations Khor et al, 2003
  1539. VPS16 Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1540. VPS28 vacuolar protein sorting 28 homolog (S. cerevisiae) binds to viral M1 protein Bruce et al, 2009
  1541. VPS33A facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1542. VSIG4 component of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1543. VTI1B vesicle transport through interaction with t-SNAREs 1B: UVRAG mediates viral endocytic transport and membrane penetration through interactions with the class C vacuolar protein sorting (C-Vps) tethering complex and endosomal glutamine-containing SNAREs [syntaxin 7 (STX7), STX8, and vesicle transport through t-SNARE homolog 1B (Vti1b)]: Pirooz et al, 2014
  1544. WAS Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (eczema-thrombocytopenia) : Knockout mice have defective immune responses to the virus Andreansky et al, 2005
  1545. WDR18 WD repeat domain 18 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1546. WDR34 WD repeat domain 34 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1547. WDR83 WD repeat domain 83 (Ex MGC4238): siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1548. WNT9A wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 9A: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1549. WWP2 facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1550. XAB2 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1551. XDH Xanthine oxidase : Viral infection induces 170-fold increase in ADA activity and a 400-fold increase in Xanthine oxidase activity in alveolar fluid , a system respondible for free radical generation and toxicity Akaike et al, 1990
  1552. XPNPEP1 siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1553. XPO1 exportin 1 (CRM1 homolog, yeast) binds to the viral nucleoprotein Elton et al, 2001
    1. siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
    2. Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1554. XPO5 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1555. XPO7 Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1556. XPOT Binds to polymerase PA Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1557. XRCC5 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5 (double-strand-break rejoining) interacts with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex Mayer et al, 2007
  1558. XRCC6 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6 required by both H1N1 and H5N1 polymerases Bortz et al, 2011.
  1559. YIPF5 Yip1 domain family, member 5 : Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1560. YIPF6 Yip1 domain family, member 6: binds to viral PA protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1561. YLPM1 YLP motif containing 1: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1562. YWHAZ yrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptidecomponent of the macrophage inflammasome during viral infection Lietzén et al, 2011
  1563. ZBTB2 zinc finger and BTB domain containing 2: siRNA knockdown decreases replication Karlas et al, 2010
  1564. ZBTB25 zinc finger and BTB domain containing 25: binds to viral M2 protein Shapira et al, 2009 : Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1565. ZC3H18 zinc finger CCCH-type containing 18: Binds to polymerase PA-PB1 Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1566. ZC3HAV1 zinc finger CCCH-type, antiviral 1 component of the viral polymerase Bradel-Tretheway et al, 2011
  1567. ZFAND3 zinc finger, AN1-type domain 3: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1568. ZFHX3 zinc finger homeobox 3facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1569. ZMAT3 zinc finger, matrin-type 3: binds to viral NS1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1570. ZMAT4 zinc finger, matrin-type 4binds to viral M1,NS1,PB1 protein(s) Shapira et al, 2009
  1571. ZNF7 zinc finger protein 7: facilitates host cell resistance to lethal influenza challenge (Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation study) Sui et al, 2009
  1572. ZNF37BP (ZNF37B) zinc finger protein 37B, pseudogene siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1573. ZNF295-AS1 ZNF295 antisense RNA 1 (non-protein coding) (Ex C21orf121) siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1574. ZNF346 zinc finger protein 346: Binds to NS1 Shapira et al, 2009
  1575. ZNF436 zinc finger protein 436 : Involved in early steps of viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1576. ZNF512 zinc finger protein 512: siRNA knockdown decreases replication (primary hit table) Karlas et al, 2010
  1577. ZNF668 zinc finger protein 668: binds to the viral nucleoprotein (Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2010 Aug;26(8):1037-41. Chinese.)
  1578. ZNF862 zinc finger protein 862 : Required for viral replication (siRNA study) König et al, 2010
  1579. ZXDC ZXD family zinc finger C: Interacts with the viral polymerase Tafforeau et al, 2011
  1580. Glycan microarray analysis of the hemagglutinins from modern and pandemic influenza viruses reveals different receptor specificities.
  1581. pH modified by channel
  • A subset of antiviral and proviral genes identified by Shapira et al, 2009

  • Antiviral
    • ADRB2 APOBEC3G ARTN ATP13A1 B2M BID BLNK BMPR1A BMPR2 BTG1 C14orf94 C1GALT1 CABIN1 CACNA1G CACNG1 CACNG7 CADM1 CALCOCO1 CALML3 CARD10 CASP3 CCL26 CDK4 CDKN2AIP CDKN2C CEBPA CEBPD CHMP6 CIRBP CLCF1 CLK4 CSNK1A1L CTBP1 CTDSPL CTH CTNNBL1 CXCL1 CXorf40A CYCS DAAM2 DAXX DCLRE1C DFFB DHCR24 DMXL2 DNAJB9 E2F3 EAF2 EGR3 EIF2AK2 EPHB2 ETS1 EXT1 F2R FAM117A FASTKD2 FBXL5 FBXO34 FLRT2 FOSL1 FOXI1 FOXN1 FZD5 GPR137B H2AFV HCCS HIST1H2AC HK2 HLA-B HMGA1 HOXC12 HPS6 HSPB8 IFITM2 IFITM3 IHPK2 IKBKB IKBKE IKBKG IKZF3 IL1RAP IL27 ILKAP INDO INTS5 IRF3 ITPK1 ITPR2 JAG2 JMJD2B KIAA0430 KIAA1219 KIFAP3 KLF2 KLF7 KLHL21 KLHL9 LIF LIPA LITAF MAL2 MAP2K7 MAP3K2 MAP3K9 MAP4K1 MAPK7 MIPOL1 MKNK1 MKNK2 MRPS30 MYH9 NCOR2 NINJ1 NKIRAS2 NLRP9 NOD2 NR2F1 NRP1 P2RY2 PDCD10 PEX14 PI4KB PIGA PIK3C2B PIK3R4 PLA2G10 PLA2G5 PLCD1 PLXNA2 PLXNB2 PML PPAN PQLC1 PRICKLE2 PRKACA PRKRA PRMT2 PSMB10 RGS2 RNF44 RP2 RPS6KA1 RPS6KA3 RRP1B RTF1 RYBP SAR1A SDCBP2 SERPINB9 SERPINE1 SFRS7 SMAD6 SPRY4 STAT1 STK24 SWAP70 SYNPO TACC1 TCF7L2 TDRD7 TFDP2 TMEM110 TMEM140 TNFRSF25 TNFSF11 TOB2 TP53 TRIM63 TTC12 TULP4 UBP1 ULBP3 UROS USHBP1 WNT9B WTAP
  • Proviral
    • ACP2 ACSL4 ACTN2 ADAM8 ADAMTS1 ADCY7 AHNAK2 ALG6 AMHR2 APOA5 ARMCX5 ATF2 ATF4 BHLHB2 BUB3 C14orf109 C21orf33 CACNA1A CALCOCO2 CAMK2G CCL3 CCNL1 CCRN4L CFLAR CHAC1 CISH CLEC2B CLIC4 CLU COL1A1 COPA COPZ2 CPSF4 CSF2 CSNK1A1 CUTC CXCL9 CYLD CYP2J2 DAAM1 DGKD DLX2 DUSP5 EIF2AK3 EIF2S2 ELK1 EP300 EPHA4 FADS2 FAM35A FASN FBXW2 FGFR2 FKBP5 GMEB1 GOLGA3 GPD2 GPR56 GRB2 HEATR1 HECTD3 HLA-A HLA-G HMGA2 ICAM1 IFIT2 IFIT5 IFNGR2 IGFBP6 IL15RA IL1F10 IL24 IL31RA IL33 INCA1 ING1 ING3 IRAK1 IRF1 IRF2 IRF6 IRF8 ITPKB IVNS1ABP JUNB KBTBD4 KIAA0226 KIAA0406 KIAA0947 KIAA1609 KIF2C KLF6 KRAS LAMA5 LEPR LGALS3BP LIN37 LMNA LPIN1 LSR LZTS2 MAGEA11 MAP2K3 MAP3K7IP1 MAPK11 MAPK13 MFAP1 MICAL2 MTHFD2 MTSS1 NAG NBN NEU1 NF1 NFE2L1 NFIL3 NFKB1 NFKBIA NFKBIE NLRP10 NLRP14 NR4A1 NXF1 OAS1 OASL OSMR PCF11 PCK2 PCYOX1 PDGFA PELI1 PGD PHF20 PHF3 PIK3C2A PIK3CD PIK3R2 PIK3R3 PLA2G2F PLCD3 POLD3 POLR3B PRAF2 PRKCA PRKY PSCD2 PSMB9 PTPN11 PTPRU RAB40B RAPGEF2 RASGRP2 RBBP6 RBCK1 RFTN1 RIOK3 RNASE4 RNASEL RNF103 HLA-F-AS1 RPL13A RPL31 RPS6KA4 RPS6KA5 RSRC2 RTP4 RXRG SAV1 SCPEP1 SDC4 SHC1 SKIP SLC1A3 SMAD7 SNUPN SORL1 SPRY1 STARD5 STK38 SUPT6H SVIL SYK SYNJ1 TAOK3 TBC1D10B TBCD PION TCEAL1 TCF20 TFAP2A TFAP2C TGFBR1 TLK1 TLR10 TMEM186 TNFAIP8 TNFRSF10D TNFRSF6B TNIP3 TRIM22 TRIM25 TRIM26 TRIM27 UBC ULBP1 UMPS USP46 WASF1 WASF3 WDFY3 WDR37 WNT5A XBP1 ZCCHC8 ZFYVE26 ZIC1 ZKSCAN1 ZMAT4 ZMIZ1 ZNF217 ZNF512B

Quantitative Proteomic Analyses of Influenza Virus-Infected Cultured Human Lung Cells Coombs et al, 2010

Upregulated ABCC10 ACTB AKR7A3 ALB ALDH1A1 ANK3 APOE ATG16L1 ATP1A3 B2M BPTF BTF3 CAV1 CCT3 CHMP4A COL1A1 COPS4 CRNL1 DBN1 DCD DCK DCTN4 EIF1B ERBB4 FAM45A FLNC GBRL2 GLTP GLUD1 GPI GRPEL2 GTF2F1 H3F3A HBA HBA HBB HEXI1 HIST2H2AC HLA-A HLA-C HNRNPC HORN HSPA1B HSPA5 IFITM2 ISG15 ISG15 KATNAL2 KHDRBS1 KRT1 KRT10 KRT14 KRT17 KRT2 KRT2 KRT5 KRT6A KRT6B KRT9 LTF MACROD1 MAPK1 MARCH5 MAT2A MST4 MT1X MTMR12 MX2 NCOR2 NFE2L1 NT5E NUDCD1 OSGEP OXCT2 PARVB PCF11 PGD PIK3C2A PLEC1 PLK2 PRAF1 PRDX2 RAB15 RAB4A RER1 RIOK3 RPL29 RPS21 RRBP1 RSAD2 S100A10 S100A4 SCYL2 SERPINE1 SH3BGRL SLC25A12 SLC25A3 SMOX SNX6 SPIT2 SRPRB SRSF10 SSU72 TAF15 TIMM44 TK1 TMEM63A TTC1 TXNRD3 UBE2C VIM VIPAS39 WDR4 ZFP36L1 ZNT1

Downregulated: ABCF2 ALDH9A1 BIG1 CTNB1 DNAJC9 EIF4A2 EIF4G3 ERG7 FUBP2 GSLG1 GTPB1 HECTD1 IGF2BP3 KIF15 LMNA LSM14A MYH14 NDUFS3 NSFL1C NUCB1 NUDT1 NUP53 PPME1 PRKCD RAB35 RRM2 SNX12 STRN4 TACC2 TRAP1 TRPP UNC45A VKOR1 WDR82 YWHAG

Components of a genomic signature correlating with influenza disease severity Huang et al, 2011

ACP5 ADAMTS5 ADRBK2 BVLRA C13ORF18 C3AR1 CIRBP CNKSR1 CTH EGR2 FKBP5 FLJ12529 FLT3 GBP1 GM2A GNG7 GRB10 GSTT1 HLA-DQA1 HRASLS3 IFI27 IFI44L IL18RAP KIF1B LOC283345 LOC93349 LPAR1 MYOM2 NEB OAS1 PRSS21 RTP4 SLC25A20 SLC26A4 SMAD1 TLE1 TOMM34 TUBB2A UAP1L1 UTS2 WDR41

Components of self-organising maps illustrating the transcriptional dynamics of Influenza infection (H3N2/wisconsin) Huang et al, 2011
ADA ADAMTS5 ADAR ALDH5A1 CCR1 CD1C CHI3L1 COMMD4 CSF1R CX3CR1 DDB2 EEF2 EIF6 FBXO9 FGFR10P HLA-DPA1 HOOK1 IFI27 IFI44L IGSF2 LOC442171 LY6E MPZL1 MX2 ODC1 ORM1 PRDX2 PSAP RPGR RPL22 RPL3 RPS16 RPS3 RPS4X SCO2 SIGLEC1 SPTLC2 TNFRSF1B TXNDC13 WARS

Host modulators of H1N1 cytopathogenicity (siRNA study) .Ward et al, 2012

  1. Proviral host factors CCDC120 CNTN2 GLYATL1 PCTK3 PFTK1 PIK3R3 RNASEK SFPQ SLC36A2 VTA1
  2. "Death deflectors" C12orf47 C20orf200 CDKL5 COPB2 COX6A2 FAM166A FZD6 G6PC3 ISOC2 KCTD18 LGALS3BP LRRC17 MUC1 NTSR2 RPL35 RPS28 RPS29 SLC5A1 SYT8 TRRAP
  3. Restriction factors ABCA2 ACTB ACTR8 ADORA3 ANGEL1 ANLN ANXA1 AP1M1 API5 ATP5A1 C10orf68 C11orf68 C13orf29 C21ORF93 C9ORF23 CASC5 CCDC117 CCS CDC2 CHSY1 CTRB1 CYLC1 DDX46 DNAJA1 DOCK5 FAM174A FANCI FLJ41327 GLB1L2 GMPS GP1BB GPM6B GPN2 GTF3A HNRNPAB IFITM3 IFT122 IGDCC3 ITGAE KCND3 LOC144383 LOC401396 LYPLA2 LYST MCART1 MKRNP5 MRM1 MYRIP NCR3 NUMB NUP85 PLCXD2 POLE POLR2D PRRT3 PTGFRN PYCR2 RGS18 RGS4 RHBG RNF213 RPL21P131 RPL23A RPL27 RPL7P48 RPS3AP47 SCO2 SCPEP1 SELENBP1 SHPK SIRT3 SOLH TCF25 TMCO6 TNFRSF10C TXNRD2 UBE2H UIMC1 VAPB WDR6 YEATS4 ZMYM6 ZNF407 ZNF580 ZNF678

Death effectors ACAP2 ANKFY1 ATP6V0A1 C4orf23 COBL FAM53C FSCN3 IL10 IRF2 IVNS1ABP LMF2 N4BP1 PIK3R4 RNASEL RPGRIP1 RRAGD RUNDC3A SHISA5 TBC1D1 TIFA TMEM164 TROAP ZRANB1

Response of primary human airway epithelial cells to influenza infection: a quantitative proteomic study.Kroeker et al, 2012

Upregulated ACOT7 ACTC1 ADSS ALDH1A3 ANTXR2 ANXA7 BCAM BOLA2 CAD CAPNS1 CLPB COG3 CTSH DBNL EIF4 EIF4A2 FTL GBP1 GOT1 GPNMB GSN HBB HBD HIST1H2BK HIST3H2A HLA-B/C HMGA1 HN1 HSPBP1 IFIT1 IFIT2 IFIT3/4 IFITM1 ISG15 LGALS7 LYRM7 METTL9 MLYCD MMP1 MTPAP MX1 MX2 NAP1L1 NOMO1 NUTF2 OASL OEF1 PACSIN3 PGM3 PKM2 PPIA PPP4R1 PRO1400 PSME1 RPS6KA1 RSAD2 SAMD9 SAMHD1 SEC23B SNX12 SPBN SRI STAT1 STMN1 TKT TLR2 TMEM34 TOMM34 TXNDC17 TXNRD1 TYMP TYR6 YBX1 ZNF259

Downregulated: ADAMTS1 C1orf212 COL12A1 CROT DARS2 EIF4G3 F3 FADS2 FADS3 FAT1 FDFT1 FN1 GLG1 IGFR2 INTB4 JAG1 LAMA3 LAMA5 MCAM NUP50 PDCD4 PFDN4 PSMC6 PTPRF RAB22 RELA RER1 RNF149 RPLP1 SERPINB7 SH3BP1 SLC39A14 SNRPA1 SPRR2D TGFBI TGOLN2 THBS1 TNFRSF10A TNFRSF10B TRAPPC9

The interactomes of influenza virus NS1 and NS2 proteins identify new host factors and provide insights for ADAR1 playing a supportive role in virus replication: de Chassey et al, 2013.

NS1 interactors ACACA ADAR1 AKT2 ATP6V1G1 BANP BCL2L1 BCLAF1 BHLHB2 BHLHB9 BRD1 CARS CCDC33 CENPC1 CPSF3L CPSF4 CRK CRKL CSAG2 CTSB DDX56 DDX58 DHX9 DLG1 DLG4 DOCK8 DUS2L DVL2 EEF1A1 EIF2AK2 ENO1 ENSG00000146666 ERBB2IP FXR2 GAS8 GIPC1 GMEB1 GOLGA2 GPS2 GSN HIVEP1 HLA-B HMBOX1 HNRNPC HNRNPH1 HNRNPM HNRNPR HNRNPU HNRPF HNRPUL1 HSP90AA1 HSPA1B HSPA8 IGF2BP1 IL6R ILF3 ISG15 KAZN KCTD6 KHDRBS3 KIAA1143 KPNA1 KPNA2 KPNA3 KPNA4 KPNA5 KPNA6 LNX2 LRRCC1 LYPLA1 LZTS2 MAGI2 MAGI3 MAP3K3 MAPK9 MCCC1 MCCC2 MEPCE MTAP NCL NKRF N-PAC NXF1 NXT1 PABPC1 PABPN1 PC PCCB PDLIM2 PIAS3 PIK3R1 PIK3R2 POLR3F POM121 PRKRA PTBP1 RAE1 RALY RPL13A RPL23A RPL24 SCRIB SDHB SEPT1 SNAPC3 SNAPC4 SON SP100 SRP14 SRP54 SSX2IP STAU1 STAU2 STRBP STX5 SUMO1 TARBP2 TAX1BP3 TNNI3 TRIM25 TRIM27 TUBB UBE2I YBX1 ZBTB17 ZMAT3 ZMAT4 ZMYM2 ZNF346 ZYX

NS2 interactors AIMP2 AP2B1  ARNT ATP6V1G1 BHLHB9 BSPRY CARD9 CCHCR1 CENPH CEP110 CHCHD5 COG6 COG8 CYTH4 DCTN2 DYNLL1 DYNLL2 ENO1 ERBB2IP GMEB1 GPS2 HIVEP1 IGHG1 KCTD6 LAMB1 LAMC3 MBIP NIN N-PAC NUP214 NUP98 PIAS3 POLR3F POM121 POMP PREPL RPSA  SDHB SKP1 SNAPC4 SNX4 TFCP2 TNNI3 TXNDC9 VAC14 XPO1 ZBTB17 ZMYM2 ZWINT ZYX

Proteomics Analysis of Cellular Proteins Co-Immunoprecipitated with Nucleoprotein of Influenza A Virus (H7N9). Sun et al, 2015 ACTC1 ACTL6A ACTN4 ADD1 AHSG APOA1 APOH ATP5A1 BANF1 C1QBP C3 C4BPA CANX CCDC124 CHTOP CKB CP DBT DCLRE1A DDX21 DDX39B DDX5 DEK DHX15 DHX9 DLST DNAJC13 DR1 DRAP1 DYNLL1 EIF2S2 EIF4A3 ELAVL1
ERH FBL FLOT1 FMR1 FOXK1 FUS FXR1 G3BP2 GAR1 GATAD2B GC GEMIN2 HACD3 HMGB1 HNRNPM HP HPX HSPE1 IGF2BP1 ILF3 INA KHDRBS1 KNG1 LARP1 LUC7L2 MAGOH MARCKSL1 MATR3 MDH2 MFGE8 MIF MKI67 MOV10 MRPS28 NACA NCBP1 NES NONO NUDT21 ORM1 PABPC1 PAICS PARP1 PBX2 PCBP3 PCMT1 PHB PHGDH PLS3 PPIA PPP1R9B PRKDC PSIP1 PSMA3 PTBP1 PTMA PUF60 RAB15 RALY RAN RBBP7 RBM14 RBMX RCC1 RIF1 RNPS1 RPA2 RPL19 RPL39P5 RSL1D1 RUVBL2 SF3A1 SF3B1 SLC25A3 SMARCE1 SNRPA1 SNRPB2 SNRPN SNU13 SRRM2 SRSF1 SSBP1 SUB1 TCOF1 TECR TF TFAM TMPO TOMM20 TP53 TRA2B TRIM28 U2AF2 UPF1 USMG5 VCP VTN XRCC5 ZCCHC3

Insights into Human Astrocyte Response to H5N1 Infection by Microarray Analysis Lin et al, 2015

Top 20 upregulated at 6 hrs: AEBP1 BEST3 FAM71B FOS HGFAC HTR3B LBP LHX5 LRTM2 MCHR2 MEP1A MRAP MS4A6A MYO1G OR4C46 TAS2R46 TFF3 ZG16 ZIM3

Top 20 upregulated at 12 hrs: CD34 CDSN IFIT3 KSR1 MPL MYO1G OR4K17 OR5I1 OR7A10 OR8D1 RBFOX1 RFX4 RSAD2 SLC24A2 SLC6A20 ST6GALNAC1 TFF3 TTLL6 ZFP57

Top 20 upregulated at 24 hrs: BATF2 BST2 CXCL10 CXCL11 DDX58 FOSB IFI44L IFIT1 IFIT2 IFIT3 MX1 MX2 OAS1 OAS2 OASL RTP4 SAMD9 USP18 VPREB1

The viral theory of schizophrenia revisited: Abnormal placental gene expression and structural changes with lack of evidence of H1N1 viral presence in placentae of infected mice or brains of exposed offspring Fatemi et al, 2012

Placental genes significantly altered by prenatal viral infection on E7 1700064N11RIK 2010005J08RIK 2210404J11RIK 3100002L24RIK 3830406C13RIK 4930534B04RIK 4933416O17RIK 9530010C24RIK ACYP1 ADAMTS5 AI043046 ANXA8 AP1G1 ARAF ARFGEF1 ARHGAP18 ARL4A ASB3 ATG5 ATP2B1 ATP5J2 ATRX ATXN1L BAG1 BCAP31 BCL10 BTF3 C530028O21RIK CAPN7 CD99 CDC23 CLIC5 CRKRS CSDE1 CTHRC1 CTNND1 D17ERTD663E DALRD3 DCAF4 DDX3Y DMKN DYNLT3 E030016H06RIK EBF1 EDN2 EGFR EIF2C3 ENDOG ENTPD7 ERO1L EWSR1 EXOSC9 F2R FAM168A FAM76B FBXO30 FOXO3 FYN GALT GIT1 GKN1 GM11517 GNG12 GNPNAT1 GP49A GPIHBP1 GPRC5C GRIA1 GTF2H4 GTF3C6 HEATR6 HES1 HNRNPAB HR HS1BP3 HSD17B4 HSPB7 IGFBP3 INTS6 KDM5A KDSR KIF5B LMAN1 LRAT LRIG2 MAD2L2 MAGOH MALL MED19 MEF2C MFHAS1 MGRN1 MIF MMACHC MNT MRPL30 MRPS30 MSLN MTERFD2 NAT6 NCAPH2 NCSTN NLGN2 NUB1 NUDT3 OGT OVCA2 PA2G4 PDCD2 PDE10A PIAS3 PIGF PIGK PIK3CG PLEK2 PRNP PRRG3 PSAPL1 PSMD7 PTEN PURA PUS1 PVR QK RB1CC1 RBM39 RDX REPIN1 RNASEL ROBO1 RUNX1 SCAPER SETD1A SETD1B SETD3 SIX5 SLC35A2 SMAD4 STAU1 STRADB SUPV3L1 SUZ12 TAC4 TAF1 TAOK1 TBC1D1 TCEB3 TGTP TM9SF1 TMEM8 TMEM9B TOMM70A TSHZ3 TSKS TTC26 UBA6 UBE2Q1 UNKL USP14 WHSC2 WIPI1 XIST XPO4 ZFP260 ZFP318 ZFP36 ZFP51 ZFP800 ZFP869

Regulated genes in the prefrontal cortex CNTN1 HPS1 NR2F1 NTRK3 PF4 GRIP1 or hippocampus PALM2 PTK2B

microRNAs in Circulation Are Altered in Response to Influenza A Virus Infection in Humans Tambya et al, 2013

Downregulated targets of the microRNA's ANKRD52 ATP5A1 FOXN3

Upregulated targets of the microRNA's AP1G1 BRD4 CACNB3 DLG5 EIF2C1 KLF12 NAV1 NF1B PAX2 PTEN TANC2

Global Reprogramming of Host SUMOylation during Influenza Virus Infection. Domingues et al, 2015

Increased SUMOylation: BLM CDC73 CHD8 CPSF1 CPSF2 CTR9 DAXX FIP1L1 HIPK2 HTATSF1 LEO1 PAF1 PIK3C2A SFPQ SPEN SRCAP SSRP1 SUPT16H SUPT5H TAF1 TAF3 ZRANB2

Decreased SUMOylation ANAPC4 ARID1A ARID1B ARID2 ARID4A ARID4B BAZ1A BAZ1B BAZ2A BCOR BPTF BRD4 BRD8 CBX5 CEBPA CENPB CENPH CENPI CENPO CENPT CHD4 CTCF DDX23 EFTUD2 EHMT1 EHMT2 EP400 GTF3C1 GTF3C4 INTS3 INTS4 ITGB3BP JUND KLF5 LCOR LMNA MBD1 MCM4 MED7 MLF1IP MLL3 NCOA2 NCOA3 NUMA1 PBRM1 PRPF8 RAD21 RBM25 RREB1 RSF1 RXRA SAP130 SMARCA2 SMARCA5 SMARCC1 SMARCC2 SMARCE1 SP1 STAG1 SUPT3H SUPT7L TERF2IP TFAP2A THOC1 TRIM28 ZEB1 ZMYM3 ZNF281





Flu / Cold / SARS news headlines provided courtesy of Medical News Today.

 

Loading...

 

 

 

 

Last update: November 12, 2016

 

View Stats