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www.chlamydiae.com Parasite Host Cell Interaction 2D-PAGE database Baron S, editor. Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. Available from: NCBI Books Wikipedia

Other interactomes :Bornavirus; Borrelia Burgdorferi; Candida albicans; ; Cryptococcus Neoformans; Ebola virus; Epstein-Barr virus; Helicobacter pylori ; Hepatitis C virus; Herpes simplex (HSV-1); HERV-W; HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database (NCBI); Human cytomegalovirus; Influenza A virus; Porphyromonas Gingivalis; Toxoplasma Gondii; Trypanosoma Cruzi

 

Host proteins used by Chlamydia Pneumoniae during its life cycle.

If you know of other interactions, (or corrections) please with Pubmed ID, gene symbol/accession number and interacting protein. Thank you.

Amino acids

Chlamydiae import arginine from the host Smith and Graham, 2008

Leucine, isoleucine, methionine and phenylalanine inhibit the growth of C.trachomatis and C.Pneumoniae. Tryptophan and valine marginally inhibited C. trachomatis growth and enhance C. pneumoniae growth. glutamate, glutamine and aspartate stimulated C. pneumoniae growth more than that of C. trachomatis. Al-Younes et al, 2006 A C Pneumoniae protein Cpn1046 is able to hydroxylate phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Cpn1046 is expressed within 24 h of infection, allowing C. pneumoniae to hydroxylate host stores of aromatic amino acids during the period of logarithmic bacterial growth Abromaitis et al, 2009.

C.Pneumoniae expresses an external sphingomyelinase converting host sphingomyelin, to ceramide. Biophysical properties of the two provide the driving force for autoendocytosis of the bacterium Peñate Medina et al, 2014

  1. ABCA1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 1 : C. pneumoniae modifies cholesterol homoeostasis in human THP-1 macrophages via JNK-PPARG dependent pathways and downregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 Liu et al, 2010
  2. ABCG1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 1 : C. pneumoniae modifies cholesterol homoeostasis in human THP-1 macrophages via JNK-PPARG dependent pathways and downregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 Liu et al, 2010
  3. ACADM acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain: ACADM and CPT1A mRNA Hypertriglyceridemia produced by C.Pneumoniae was associated with reduced expression of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (Cpt1a) and medium chain acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (Acadm) Marangoni et al, 2015.
  4. ACAT1 acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1: The bacterium induces macrophage related foam cell formation via ACAT1 upregulation He et al, 2009
  5. ADD1 : adducin 1 (alpha) Recruited to the chlamydial inclusion Chu et al, 2008
  6. Agmatine: a functional arginine-agmatine bacterial exchange system protects against host nitric oxide production and innate immunity (takes in host arginine) Giles et al, 2009
  7. AIFM1 AIFM1 – apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 1: C. pneumoniae-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells is caspase-independent and regulated by Bax and apoptosis-inducing factor Schöier et al, 2006.
  8. AKT1 Phosphorylation increased by infection in Jurkat cells Hirai et al, 2012
  9. ALDOA aldolase A, fructose-bisphosphate: sequestered by chlamydial outer protein N Ishida et al, 2014
  10. ALOX12 – arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase: platelet activation by C.Pneumoniae is antagonised by 12-lipoxygenase inhibition (involved in reactive oxygen species production and oxidation of LDL ) Kälvegren et al, 2007
  11. APOE APOE4 enhances attachment of C.Pneumoniae elementary bodies to host cells Gérard et al, 2008
  12. APOB C.Pneumoniae elementary bodies binds to APOB containing fractions of lipoproteins Bashmakov et al, 2010
  13. APP amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein: C.Pneumoniae infection increases brain beta-amyloid deposition in mice Little et al, 2004
  14. ATF2 activating transcription factor 2: During Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, the expression and activity of AP-1 family proteins c-Jun, c-Fos, and ATF-2 were regulated in a time- and dose-dependent manner Krämer et al, 2015.
  15. ATP6V1H ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 50/57kDa, V1 subunit H: Inhibition inhibits growth Ouellette et al, 2011
  16. B2M – beta-2-microglobulin: enhanced severity of infection of TAP1-/-/beta2-microglobulin -/- mice Rottenberg et al, 1999
  17. BAD BCL2-associated agonist of cell death: Bim, Puma and Bad proteins disappear during cellular infection Fischer et al, 2004
  18. BBC3 BCL2 binding component 3 (Puma) Bim, Puma and Bad proteins disappear during cellular infection Fischer et al, 2004
  19. BCL2L11 BCL2-like 11 (apoptosis facilitator) (Bim): Bim, Puma and Bad proteins disappear during cellular infection Fischer et al, 2004
  20. BIN1 bridging integrator 1 (Amphiphysin II ): required for survival of Chlamydia pneumoniae in macrophages Gold et al, 2004
  21. BIRC2 baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 2 : regulates immunity to pulmonary infection Prakash et al, 2009
  22. BIRC3 baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3: nduces the expression induced by infection in a human monocytic cell line Wahl et al, 2003.
  23. BRCA1 – breast cancer 1, early onset: reduced expression in isolated C.pneumoniae positive human atherosclerotic plaques Ja et al, 2011
  24. BSG (EMMPRIN; basigin (Ok blood group) ) activated by C.Pneumoniae in monocytes Schmidt et al, 2006
  25. C4A complement component 4A (Rodgers blood group) and C4B complement component 4B (Chido blood group): Deficiency in humans predisposes to chlamydial infections Kozlov et al, 2001
  26. Calcium channels: L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels influence C.Pneumoniae infection and effects in macrophages Azenabor et al, 2004 L-type calcium channel subunits on macrophages include CACNA1C , CACNB1 and CACNB2 Das et al, 2009,
  27. CANX Calnexin: CPn0809 and CPn1020 colocalise with calnexin Muller et al, 2008
  28. CALR Calreticulin University of AArhus 2D database
  29. CAPRIN2 caprin family member 2 |: interacts with the C.pneumoniae inclusion membrane protein Cpn1027 Flores and Zhong, 2015
  30. CASP1 involved in cleavage of IL1B induced by C.Pneumoniae infection He et al, 2010
  31. CASP3 Chlamydia inhibits apoptosis by blocking caspase 3 activation and mitochondrial cytochrome C release Airenne et al, 2002
  32. CASP8 activated by infection in T lymphocytes Olivares-Zavaleta et al, 2011
  33. CASP9 activated by infection in T lymphocytes Olivares-Zavaleta et al, 2011
  34. CAT Catalase Activity increased by infection in macrophages Azenabor et al, 2003
  35. CAV1 Caveolins associate with Chlamydial inclusion bodies Webley et al, 2004
  36. CAV2 Caveolins associate with Chlamydial inclusion bodies Webley et al, 2004
  37. CCL5 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5L (RANTES) induced by C. pneumoniae infection in mouse fibroblasts Chiliveru et al, 2010
  38. CCND1 – cyclin D1: Upregulated by IFN- gamma -induced persistent C. pneumoniae infection in HL cells Mannonen et al, 2007.
  39. CCND3 Cyclin D3: Protein levels downregulated by infection in Jurkat cells Hirai et al, 2012
  40. CCT5 chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 5 (epsilon) University of AArhus 2D database
  41. CD3 expression in lymphocyte Molt-4 cells decreased by C. pneumoniae infection Yamaguchi et al, 2008
  42. CD8A CD8B enhanced severity of infection of CD8-/- mice Rottenberg et al, 1999
  43. CD14 binds to C.Pneumoniae on macrophages Azenabor et al, 2005
  44. Cholesterol : C. pneumoniae modifies cholesterol homoeostasis in human THP-1 macrophages via JNK-PPARG dependent pathways Liu et al, 2010
    • Entry into epithelial cell lines is cholesterol dependent and blocked by nystatin or filipin Korhonen et al, 2011
  45. CD40 and CD86 expression downregulated by bacterial MOMP protein in mouse macrophages Bermudez-Fajardo et al, 2011
  46. CD69 and CD40LG (cd154 in mouse) downregulated by bacterial MOMP protein in mouse activated CD4(+) T cells Bermudez-Fajardo et al, 2011
  47. CDH2 – cadherin 2, type 1, N-cadherin (neuronal) : C. pneumoniae infection of human brain microvascular endothelial cells resulted increases expression of the beta-catenin, N-cadherin, and VE-cadherin, and decreases expression of the tight junctional protein occludin MacIntyre et al, 2002
  48. CDH5 – cadherin 5, type 2 (vascular endothelium) see above: MacIntyre et al, 2002
  49. CDKN1A – cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1): promoter activated by infection in epithelial cells Gencay et al, 2003
  50. CEBPB CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta: C. pneumoniae activates C/EBP-beta, NF-kappaB, and the glucocorticoid receptor in infected epithelial cells Gencay et al, 2003
  51. chondroitin sulfate A: C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis attachment inhibited by exogenous Csa (suggesting attachment to recptors containg Csa) Yan et al, 2006
  52. CHRNA4 CHRNA7 CHRNB2 CHRNB4 Nicotinic acteylcholine receptors: Nicotine stimulated chlamydial growth via cholinergic receptors in hepG2 cells, which contain these subunits Yamaguchi et al, 2003
  53. CHUK – conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase: activated by C.Pneumoniae infection in in human monocytic lineage cells Donath et al, 2002.
  54. CKB Creatine kinase B-type University of AArhus 2D database
  55. COL1A1 collagen, type I, alpha 1: Expression decreased by infection in fibroblasts Baumert et al, 2009
  56. COL3A1 collagen, type III, alpha 1 : Expression decreased by infection in fibroblasts Baumert et al, 2009
  57. COL4A3BP collagen, type IV, alpha 3 (Goodpasture antigen) binding protein recruited to the chlamydial inclusion Moorhead et al, 2010
  58. CFP Properdin binds to C.Pneumoniae and promotes complement activation, depositing complement components C3 and C9 on the bacterial surface Cortes et al, 2011
  59. COL1A1 collagen, type I, alpha 1: infection of human fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells by C. pneumoniae downregulated type I and III collagen and fibronectin expression Baumert et al, 2009
  60. COL3A1 ollagen, type III, alpha 1: See above Baumert et al, 2009
  61. COX1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I : Macrophages stimulated with C. pneumoniae exhibit early release of reactive oxygen species via up-regulation of NADPH oxidase and cytochrome c oxidase Azenabor et al, 2005
  62. CPT1A carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A : ACADM and CPT1A mRNA Hypertriglyceridemia produced by C.Pneumoniae was associated with reduced expression of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (Cpt1a) and medium chain acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (Acadm) Marangoni et al, 2015.
  63. CRP C-reactive protein, pentraxin-related: acute phase protein upregulated by this and other infections de Maat and Kluft, 2001
  64. CSF2 colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage) intra-nasal bacterial , inoculation increases plasma levels of IL2, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12, GM-CSF (= CSF2) , IFN-gamma, and serum amyloid A Campbell et al, 2010
  65. CTGF – connective tissue growth factor: infection in HeLa cells inceased CTGF, IL6, IL8, IL11, LIF, EGR1 and ETV4 mRNA expression Peters et al, 2005
  66. expression CTNNB1 – catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa: C. pneumoniae infection of human brain microvascular endothelial cells resulted increases expression of the beta-catenin, N-cadherin, and VE-cadherin, and decreases expression of the tight junctional protein occludin MacIntyre et al, 2002,
  67. CXCL9 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9: Alias:CMK, Humig, MIG, SCYB9, crg-10: has antichlamydial activity: CXCL*, CXCL10 and CXCL11 induced by infection Balogh et al, 2011
  68. CXCL10 – chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10: induced by C. pneumoniae infection in mouse fibroblasts Chiliveru et al, 2010
  69. CXCR7 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 7: involved in entry in human coronary artery endothelial cells Wang et al, 2010
  70. CYBA – cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide: Expression increased by infection in porcine coronary arteries, Increased production of superoxide Deniset et al, 2012
  71. CYBB cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide: mRNA expression increased by infection of vascular smooth muscle cells Rivera et al, 2011
  72. CYCS cytochrome c, somatic: Chlamydia inhibits apoptosis by blocking caspase 3 activation and mitochondrial cytochrome C release Airenne et al, 2002
  73. CYP7A1 C. pneumoniae and HCMV infection decrease CYP7A1 promoter activity in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells Michelini et al, 2012
  74. DEFB4A defensin, beta 4A: induced by C.Pneumoniae in brain capillary endothelial cells Tiszlavicz et al, 2011.
  75. DUSP1 dual specificity phosphatase 1 Knockout impairs resistance to the bacterium Rodriguez et al, 2010
  76. EDN1 endothelin 1: Expresssion induced by infection in vascular smooth muscle cells Kern et al, 2009
  77. EDNRA endothelin receptor type A upregulated by infection of endothelial cells Kern et al, 2009
  78. EEA1 – early endosome antigen 1 : C.Pneumoniae colocalizes with surfactant protein (SP)-A-mediated endocytosed lipid and early endosomes (EEA1- and Rab5-positive) after 3 and 6 h of infection in pneumocytes Wissel et al, 2003
  79. EEF1B2 eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 University of AArhus 2D database
  80. EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor: Receptor for a chlamydial invasin (pmp21) which activates downstream recruitment of adaptors Grb2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 )and CBL (Cbl proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase )and activation of ERK1/2 (MAPK1, MAPK3 ) Mölleken et al, 2013
  81. EGR1 early growth response 1 activated by infection of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells Rupp et al, 2005
  82. EIF3I eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit I University of AArhus 2D database
  83. EIF5A eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A University of AArhus 2D database
  84. ELK1 – ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family: C pneumoniae-stimulates phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1 in mouse macrophages Bea et al, 2003
  85. ETV4 – ets variant 4: infection in HeLa cells inceased CTGF, IL6, IL8, IL11, LIF, EGR1 and ETV4 mRNA expression Peters et al, 2005
  86. F3 F3 – coagulation factor III (thromboplastin, tissue factor): Tissue factor, PAI-1, and IL6 expression increased in infected Human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: NF-kappaB was activated and IkappaBalpha degraded Dechend et al, 1999
  87. FAS Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6): Chlamydia trachomatis and C.Pneumoniae inhibit fasf-mediated apoptosis Fischer et al, 2004
  88. FCGR2A – Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIa, receptor (CD32): Induced by C.pneumoniae infection of human aortic endothelial cells Vielma et al, 2002 FCGR2B – Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIb, receptor (CD32)
  89. PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 ( aka FAK) Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK preceded its appearance in a complex with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase ( PIK3R1) during C.pneumoniae invasion Coombes and Mahony, 2002
  90. FGA – fibrinogen alpha chain (complexes with FGB and FGG) production incresaed by infection in hepatocytes Bouwman et al, 2004
  91. FGF2 fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic): expression upregulated by infection in human endothelial cells Prochnau et al, 2004.
  92. FLOT1 flotillin 1: colocalizes with the Inclusion membrane protein A (IncA) in C. pneumoniae inclusion membranes Korhonen et al, 2012
  93. FLT3LG – fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand: results in greater lung inflammation during acute C.Pneumoniae infection Crother et al, 2012.
  94. FN1 fibronectin 1: Expression decreased by infection in fibroblasts Baumert et al, 2009
  95. GBP2 – guanylate binding protein 2, interferon-inducible : Upregulated by infection in mediastinal lymph node lymphocytes Kyläniemi et al, 2009
  96. GCLC – glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit : Inhibition increases chlamydial cHSP-60 gene and protein expression in macrophages Azenabor et al, 2006
  97. GEM GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle involved in entry in human coronary artery endothelial cells Wang et al, 2010
  98. Glycolysis: Host glycolysis enhances bacterial growth in hypoxic conditions: Rna silencing of phosphofructokinase (PFKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2) or forkheadbox O3 (FOXO3) abrogated chlamydial progeny Szaszák et al, 2013
  99. GNLY – granulysin : Upregulated in T cells by bacterial infection Walch et al, 2009
  100. GSK3B glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta : interacts with the C.pneumoniae inclusion membrane protein Cpn1027 Flores and Zhong, 2015
  101. GSTP1 glutathione S-transferase pi 1 University of AArhus 2D database
  102. GZMB – granzyme B (granzyme 2, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 1) Upregulated in T cells by bacterial infection Walch et al, 2009
  103. HAMP – hepcidin antimicrobial peptide: peak of viable bacteria in the infected liver associates with increased SLC11A2 and iron contents and increased hepcidin expression Edvinsson et al, 2008
  104. HDC – histidine decarboxylase: Induced by lung infection Burián et al,2003
  105. Heparan sulphate: C. pneumoniae OmcB is an adhesin that binds heparan sulphate-like glycosaminoglycans Moelleken and Hegemann, 2008
  106. Heparin binds to bacterial OmcB Stephens et al, 2001
  107. HIF1A hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is degraded by the the chlamydial protease-like activity factor CPAF , which is secreted into the cytoplasm of infected cells Rupp et al, 2007
  108. HLA-A major histocompatibility complex, class I, A: some infected patients have CD8(+) T cells capable of recognizing the Chlamydial HSP-70 (HLA-A*0201) Carralot et al, 2005
  109. HLA-B – major histocompatibility complex, class I, B: The HLA-B*35 allele is a strong-risk gene for C. pneumoniae infection Palikhe et al, 2008
  110. HLA-DRB1 – major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1: HLA class II allele DRB1*0701 was positively correlated with Chlamydial hsp60 response and DQB1*0301 and DQB1*0501 were negatively associated Peeling et al, 1998
  111. HLA-DQB1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1 see above
  112. HMGB1 – high mobility group box 1: released from human aortic endothelial cells suffering aponecrosis following infection Marino et al, 2008
  113. HMGCR – 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase.inhibition reduces Chlamydia pneumoniae-induced cell interaction and activation.Dechend et al, 2003
  114. HNRNPD – heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (AU-rich element RNA binding protein 1, 37kDa). Chlamydial GroEL1 increases VCAM-1 mRNA stability and cytosolic AU-binding factor 1 (AUF1/HNRNPD) levels in endothelial cells Huang et al, 2013.
  115. HSPA5 heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (Bip or GRP78 : glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa) University of AArhus 2D database
  116. HSPA8 heat shock 70kDa protein 8 University of AArhus 2D database
  117. HSPA9 heat shock 70kDa protein 9 (mortalin) University of AArhus 2D database
  118. HSPD1 heat shock 60kDa protein 1 (chaperonin) University of AArhus 2D database
  119. IDO1 Restricts bacterial growth via diversion of tyryptophan metabolism to the kynurenine pathway ( a common bacterial defence mechanism) Njau et al, 2009
  120. IFIT1 interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1: induced by C. pneumoniae infection in mouse fibroblasts Chiliveru et al, 2010
  121. IFIT3 – interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3: Upregulated by infection in mediastinal lymph node lymphocytes Kyläniemi et al, 2009
  122. IFNA1 Infection of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with Chlamydia pneumoniae induces IFN-alpha/beta- and NF-kappaBeta-dependent expression of IFN-gamma Trumstedt et al, 2007
  123. IFNB1 interferon, beta 1, fibroblast: infection of human endothelial cells with C. pneumoniae-induced production of IFN-beta Buss et al, 2010
  124. IFNG interferon, gamma: intra-nasal bacterial inoculation increases plasma levels of IL2, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12, GM-CSF (= CSF2) , IFN-gamma, and serum amyloid A Campbell et al, 2010
  125. IFNGR1 – interferon gamma receptor 1: IFN-gamma-/- or IFN-gamma receptor (R)-/- mice are highly susceptible to infection with C. pneumoniae Rothfuchs et al, 2006
  126. IGF2R mannose 6 -phosphate IGF2 receptor used in epithelial cells Puolakkainen et al, 2005
    1. Retinoic acid also inhibits chlamydial growth via this receptor Puolakkainen et al, 2008
  127. IGFBP6 – insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 : Upregulated by IFN- gamma -induced persistent C. pneumoniae infection in HL cells Mannonen et al, 2007.
  128. IKBKB – inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta : reduced expression in isolated C.pneumoniae positive human atherosclerotic plaques Ja et al, 2011
  129. IL1B interleukin 1, beta regulates inflammation and fibrosis induced by C.Pneumoniae He et al, 2010
  130. IL2 interleukin 2: intra-nasal bacterial inoculation increases plasma levels of IL2, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, and serum amyloid A Campbell et al, 2010
  131. IL5 Interleukin 5: intra-nasal bacterial inoculation increases plasma levels of IL2, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, and serum amyloid A Campbell et al, 2010
  132. IL6 interleukin 6: polymorphism modifies chlamydial growth Poikonen et al 2009
  133. IL7R interleukin 7 receptor : Upregulated by IFN- gamma -induced persistent C. pneumoniae infection in HL cells Mannonen et al, 2007.
  134. IL8 interleukin 8: infection in HeLa cells inceased CTGF, IL6, IL8, IL11, LIF, EGR1 and ETV4 mRNA expression Peters et al, 2005
  135. IL10 interleukin 10: regulates intramacrophage Chlamydia pneumoniae replication by modulating intracellular iron homeostasis Bellmann-Weiler et al, 2012.
  136. IL11 Interleukin 11: infection in HeLa cells inceased CTGF, IL6, IL8, IL11, LIF, EGR1 and ETV4 mRNA expression Peters et al, 2005
  137. IL12A interleukin 12A (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 1, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 1, p35) (heterodimer of IL12A and IL12B) intra-nasal bacterial inoculation increases plasma levels of IL2, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, and serum amyloid A Campbell et al, 2010
  138. IL12B interleukin 12B (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 2, p40) see above Campbell et al, 2010
  139. IL13 interleukin 13: increases the cytokine response to C.Pneumonia in human bronchial epithelial cells Park et al, 2010
  140. IL17A interleukin 17A: C. pneumoniae infection in mice induced IL-17A and IL-17F from day 2 after infection : reinfection leads to an incriease in IL25 (aka IL17E) expression Mosolygó et al, 2013
  141. IL17F interleukin 17F: C. pneumoniae infection in mice induced IL-17A and IL-17F from day 2 after infection : reinfection leads to an incriease in IL25 (aka IL17E) expression Mosolygó et al, 2013
  142. IL18 interleukin 18: C. pneumoniae stimulated IL18 production via MyD88-dependent pathway Netea et al, 2004
  143. IL25 interleukin 25: C. pneumoniae infection in mice induced IL-17A and IL-17F from day 2 after infection : reinfection leads to an incriease in IL25 (aka IL17E) expression Mosolygó et al, 2013
  144. INSR Insulin receptor Downregulated in infected progenitor adipose cells Shi et al, 2008
  145. IQGAP1 – IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 :C.pneumoniae infection promotes vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion and migration via IQGAP1 Zhang et al, 2012
  146. IRAK4 IRAK4, but not IRF3, controls C. pneumoniae-induced IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma secretion and bacterial growth in bone marrow macrophages Trumstedt et al, 2007
  147. IRF1 – interferon regulatory factor 1: C. pneumoniae induced the production of low levels of interferon (IFN)-beta and of IRF1 and IRF9 in bronchial and vascular smooth muscle cells Rödel et al, 2001
  148. IRF3 interferon regulatory factor 3 C. pneumoniae infection increases IRF3 and IRF7 nuclear translocation in human vascular endothelial cells Buss et al, 2010
  149. IRF7 interferon regulatory factor 7 C. pneumoniae infection increases IRF3 and IRF7 nuclear translocation in human vascular endothelial cells Buss et al, 2010
  150. IRF9 interferon regulatory factor 9: C. pneumoniae induced the production of low levels of interferon (IFN)-beta and of IRF1 and IRF9 in bronchial and vascular smooth muscle cells Rödel et al, 2001
  151. IRS1 insulin receptor substrate 1: Downregulated in infected progenitor adipose cells Shi et al, 2008
  152. ISG15 – ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier : Upregulated by IFN- gamma -induced persistent C. pneumoniae infection in HL cells Mannonen et al, 2007.
  153. ITGA5 – integrin, alpha 5 (fibronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide) : Integrin alpha(v)beta(3) involved in C. pneumoniae infection in Hela cells Caronzolo et al, 2006
  154. ITGB2 Integrin and complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit Involved in adherence to aortic epithelial cella Kalayoglu et al, 2001
  155. ITGB3 – integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61): Integrin alpha(v)beta(3) involved in C. pneumoniae infection in Hela cells Caronzolo et al, 2006
  156. ITPR1 – inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1: Expression decreased by infection in porcine coronary arteries: Also a reducion in L-type calcium channel expression Deniset et al, 2012
  157. JUN – jun proto-oncogene : Infection activates nuclear factor kappaB and activator protein 1 (Jun) in human vascular smooth muscle Miller et al, 2000
  158. KNG1 – kininogen 1 (Bradykinin) C. pneumoniae infection reduced bradykinin-induced relaxation of precontracted tissue (porcine coronary arteries) Deniset et al, 2012
  159. KRT8 Keratin degraded by chlamydial CPAF Savijoki et al, 2008
  160. KRT17 University of AArhus 2D database
  161. KRT18 Keratin degraded by chlamydial CPAF Savijoki et al, 2008
  162. LBP – lipopolysaccharide binding protein: serum LBP concentration increased post infection in mice Tiirola et al, 2002
  163. LCAT – lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase: Progressive decline in serum activity post-infection in mice Tiirola et al, 2002
  164. LCN2 lipocalin 2: involved in host defence against Chlamydia presumably by limiting the availability of iron to the pathogen Bellmann-Weiler et al, 2012
  165. LDHA lactate dehydrogenase A: released from human aortic endothelial cells suffering aponecrosis following infection Marino et al, 2008
  166. LDLR low density lipoprotein receptor: Delivery of C.pneumoniae to the vessel wall aggravates atherosclerosis in LDLr knockout mice Hauer et al, 2006.
  167. LGALS1 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1 University of AArhus 2D database
  168. LIF – leukemia inhibitory factor: infection in HeLa cells inceased CTGF, IL6, IL8, IL11, LIF, EGR1 and ETV4 mRNA expression Peters et al, 2005
  169. LPL Lipoprotein lipase: induced by infection in macrophages Azenabor et al, 2004
  170. LTA – lymphotoxin alpha (TNF superfamily, member 1): inhibits C. pneumoniae growth in HEp-2 cells.Matsushima et al, 1999
  171. LY96 lymphocyte antigen 96: chlamydial cHSP60 is induces vascular endothelial and macrophage inflammatory responses via the innate immune receptor complex TLR4/LY96 Bulut et al, 2002.
  172. MAP2K1 MAP2K1 – mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK) : In epithelial cells C. pneumoniae invasion increased MEK-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2, (MAPK1/MAPK3) followed by PI 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation and activation of Akt1 Coombes and Mahony, 2002
  173. MAPK8 MAPK8 – mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (jnk) Induction of iNOS by C.pneumoniae requires MyD88-dependent activation of JNK Rodriguez et al, 2008
  174. MAVS mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein: activated by infection in human endothelial vascular cells Buss et al, 2010
  175. MBL2 Mannose binding protein binds to major outer membrane protein on the outer surface of the chlamydial elementary body Swanson et al, 1998
  176. MDM2 MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase : MDM2-mediated degradation of p53 in Chlamydia-infected cells contributes to the anti-apoptotic influence upon the host cell González et al, 2014.
  177. MMP1 matrix metallopeptidase 1 (interstitial collagenase): expression increased by infection in peripheral blood monocytes Rupp et al, 2004
  178. MMP7 matrix metallopeptidase 7 (matrilysin, uterine): activated by C.Pneumoniae in monocytes via EMMPRIN Schmidt et al, 2006
  179. MMP9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase): activated by C.Pneumoniae in monocytes via EMMPRIN Schmidt et al, 2006
  180. MMP14 activated by C.Pneumoniae in monocytes via EMMPRIN Schmidt et al, 2006
  181. MSR1 macrophage scavenger receptor 1: upregulated by infection in human umbilical vein endothelial cells Shi and Tokunaga, 2004
  182. MYD88 myeloid differentiation primary response 88: C.Pneumoniae -induced IL-1ß secretion by macrophages requires TLR2/MyD88 and NLRP3/ASC1/Caspase-1 signaling Shimada et al, 2011 .
  183. MYLIP myosin regulatory light chain interacting protein : hepatic expression increased in infected mice Marangoni et al, 2015.
  184. NFKB1 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1: C. pneumoniae activates C/EBP-beta, NF-kappaB, and the glucocorticoid receptor in infected epithelial cells Gencay et al, 2003
  185. NFKBIA – nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha : Tissue factor, PAI-1, and IL6 expression increased in infected Human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: NF-kappaB was activated and IkappaBalpha degraded Dechend et al, 1999 Depleted by C.Pneumoniae infection in in human monocytic lineage cells Donath et al, 2002.
  186. NFKBIE – nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, epsilon: Depleted by C.Pneumoniae infection in in human monocytic lineage cells Donath et al, 2002.
  187. NLRP3 NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 and PYCARD (inflammasome) are required for caspase ( CASP1) cleavage of IL1B induced by C.Pneumoniae uinfection He et al, 2010
  188. NOD1 nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 activated by C.Pneumonia in epithelial cells Opitz et al, 2005
  189. NOD2 nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 activated by C.Pneumonia in epithelial cells Opitz et al, 2005
  190. Nitric oxide limits chlamydial growth Carratelli et al, 2005
  191. NOS2 nitric oxide synthase 2, inducible: Nitric oxide prevents chlamydial infection of macrophages Carratelli et al, 2005
  192. NOS3 nitric oxide synthase 3 (endothelial cell) Chlamydia heat shock protein 60 decreases the expression in human and porcine coronary artery endothelial cells Chen et al, 2009.
  193. NOX1 NADPH oxidase 1: Macrophages stimulated with C. pneumoniae exhibit early release of reactive oxygen species via up-regulation of NADPH oxidase and cytochrome c oxidase Azenabor et al, 2005
  194. NR1H3 uclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 3 (LXR alpha) Involved in bacterial induced foam cell formation Chen et al, 2008
  195. NR3C1 nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor): C. pneumoniae activates C/EBP-beta, NF-kappaB, and the glucocorticoid receptor in infected epithelial cells Gencay et al, 2003
  196. NRP1 – neuropilin 1: Upregulated in C. pneumoniae infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells Shi and Tokunaga, 2004
  197. OCLN occludin: C. pneumoniae infection of human brain microvascular endothelial cells resulted increases expression of the beta-catenin, N-cadherin, and VE-cadherin, and decreases expression of the tight junctional protein occludin MacIntyre et al, 2002
  198. OCRL oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe ( phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.36] )recruited to the chlamydial inclusion Moorhead et al, 2010
  199. OLR1 oxidized low density lipoprotein (lectin-like) receptor 1 : Chlamydial receptor on epithelial cells Campbell et al, 2011
  200. OSBP oxysterol binding protein recruited to the chlamydial inclusion Moorhead et al, 2010
  201. PCNA proliferating cell nuclear antigen: Expression increased by infection in Human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, associated with decreased nuclear binding of p53 Selzman et al, 2003.
  202. Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition by rolipram attenuated C. pneumoniae infectivity in vitro in fibroblasts Haralambieva et al, 2004. PDE4A PDE4B PDE4C and PDE4D are inhibited by rolipram IUPHAR
  203. PDGFB platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide involved in entry in human coronary artery endothelial cells Wang et al, 2010
  204. PDIA2 – protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 2 : Required for entry in Cho cells Abromaitis and Stephens, 2009
  205. PDIA3 protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 University of AArhus 2D database
  206. PHACTR1 – phosphatase and actin regulator 1 :
  207. phosphatidylethanolamine: Chlamydial receptor on HeLa cells, along with asialo-GM1 (aka GA1) and asialo GM2 Krivan et al, 1991
  208. PI4K2A phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 alpharecruited to the chlamydial inclusion Moorhead et al, 2010
  209. PI4K2B phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 beta recruited to the chlamydial inclusion Moorhead et al, 2010
  210. PIK3R1 phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha): Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK preceded its appearance in a complex with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase ( PIK3R1) during C.pneumoniae invasion Coombes and Mahony, 2002
  211. PLA2G7 phospholipase A2, group VII (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, plasma): In atherotic plaques isolated from carotid arteries Lp-PLA(2) (PLA2G7) associates with plaque macrophages and C. pneumoniae Atik et al, 2010
  212. PLAUR plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor: secretion increased by C.Pneumoniae in monocytes via EMMPRIN Schmidt et al, 2006
  213. PPARA peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha: C.Pneumoniae induces foam cell formation in macrophages via PPARA and PPARG Mei et al, 2009
  214. PPARG peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma : C.Pneumoniae induces foam cell formation in macrophages via PPARA and PPARG Mei et al, 2009
  215. Prostaglandin E2 release increased by infection in lymphocyte Molt-4 cells Yamaguchi et al, 2008
  216. PSMB6 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 6 University of AArhus 2D database
  217. PSMB9 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 9 (large multifunctional peptidase 2) University of AArhus 2D database
  218. PSMD9 proteasome subunit University of AArhus 2D database
  219. PTK2B protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta (FAK): Tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase induced by infection of host cells Coombes and Mahony,2002
  220. PTGS2 a selective cox-2 inhibitor PTPBS, inhibits C. pneumoniae growth in vitro but does not prevent infection or eradicate C. pneumoniae from host cells Yan et al, 2008.
  221. PYCARD PYD and CARD domain containing (inflammasome component) required for caspase (CASP1) cleavage of IL1B induced by C.Pneumoniae infection He et al, 2010
  222. PSME1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 1 (PA28 alpha) University of AArhus 2D database
  223. RAB1 RAB1, member RAS oncogene family Binds to the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion membrane protein Cpn0585 Cortes et al, 2007
  224. RAB4A – RAB4A, member RAS oncogene family: Binds to the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion membrane protein Cpn0585 Cortes et al, 2007
  225. RAB5A – RAB5A, member RAS oncogene family : C.Pneumoniae colocalizes with surfactant protein (SP)-A-mediated endocytosed lipid and early endosomes (EEA1- and Rab5-positive) after 3 and 6 h of infection in pneumocytes Wissel et al, 2003
  226. RAB10 Binds to the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion membrane protein Cpn0585 Cortes et al, 2007
  227. RAB11A Binds to the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion membrane protein Cpn0585 Cortes et al, 2007
  228. RAC1 ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1): activated in C. pneumoniae-infected cells.Eitel et al, 2012
  229. TNFSF11 – tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 11 (RANKL) IL6 and RANKL expression increased by C.pneumoniae infection in human osteoblast-like cell line hFOB Bailey et al, 2008
  230. RAC1 – ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1). vascular smooth muscle cell infection increased cell membrane-associated RhoA and Rac1 Dechend et al, 2003
  231. RAG1 – recombination activating gene 1: Infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages reduced in RAG1 knockouts Rothfuchs et al, 2004
  232. RARA or RARB ? Retinoic acid inhibits chlamydial growth via a RAR receptor Puolakkainen et al, 2008
  233. RELA v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (avian) degraded by the chlamydial protease CPAF Christian et al, 2010
  234. RFX5 regulatory factor X, 5 (influences HLA class II expression) degraded by the chlamydial protease CPAF Fan et al, 2002
  235. RHOA – ras homolog family member A: vascular smooth muscle cell infection increased cell membrane-associated RhoA and Rac1 Dechend et al, 2003
  236. RIPK2 – receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2: Essential for host defense against C.Pneumoniae lung infection Shimada et al, 2009
  237. RPLP2 ribosomal protein, large, P2 University of AArhus 2D database
  238. RPS6KB1 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1: Phosphorylation inhibited by infection in Jurkat cells Hirai et al, 2012
  239. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) : Chlamydial species lack the enzyme necessary for SAM synthesis and scavenge it from the host via a specific transporter Binet et al, 2011
  240. SAA1 serum amyloid A1: intra-nasal bacterial inoculation increases plasma levels of IL2, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12, GM-CSF (= CSF2) , IFN-gamma, and serum amyloid A Campbell et al, 2010
  241. SCARB1 scavenger receptor class B, member 1: chlamydial growth is attenuated in SCARB1-silenced cells Korhonen et al, 2011
  242. SELE – selectin E: expression increased by infection in human umbilical vein endothelial cells , along with ICAM1 and VCAM1 Kaukoranta-Tolvanen et al, 1996
  243. SELP – selectin P (granule membrane protein 140kDa, antigen CD62) : C.pneumoniae binds to platelets and triggers P-selectin expression Kälvegren et al, 2003
  244. SERPINE1 – serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1 : Tissue factor, PAI-1, and IL6 expression increased in infected Human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: NF-kappaB was activated and IkappaBalpha degraded Dechend et al, 1999
  245. SLC5A6 solute carrier family 5 (sodium-dependent vitamin transporter), member 6: used by Chlamydia to move multiple essential compounds into the inclusion body Fisher et al, 2012
  246. SLC11A2 solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters), member 2 : peak of viable bacteria in the infected liver associates with increased SLC11A2 and iron contents and increased hepcidin expression Edvinsson et al, 2008
  247. SFTPA1 – surfactant protein A1: enhances the phagocytosis of Chlamydia into THP-1 cells Oberley et al, 2004
  248. SFTPD – surfactant protein D.enhances the phagocytosis of Chlamydia into THP-1 cells Oberley et al, 2004
  249. SMAD4 – SMAD family member 4: reduced expression in isolated C.pneumoniae positive human atherosclerotic plaques Ja et al, 2011
  250. SOCS1 suppressor of cytokine signaling 1: protects against C.pneumoniae related inflammation but reduces bacterial clearance.
  251. SOD1 superoxide dismutase 1, soluble: Upregulated by C.Pneumoniae in macrophages Azenabor and Chaudhry, 2003
  252. SQSTM1 sequestosome 1: down-regulated at 24hrs and up-regulated at 72hrs following infection of neuronal cells Slutter, PhD thesis, 2011
  253. STAT1 regulates IFNB and IFNB control of Chlamydial infection and controls IDO1 Rothfuchs et al, 2006
  254. TAP1 – transporter 1, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP) enhanced severity of infection of TAP1-/-/beta2-microglobulin -/- mice Rottenberg et al, 1999
  255. STX6 Syntaxin 6 : Recruited to the chlamydial inclusion Moore et al, 2011
  256. TF transferrin : Reverses the deleterious effect of iron starvation on C.Pneumoniae survival Chlamydia may use iron transport pathways of the host by attracting transferrin receptors ( TFRC, TRF2 ) to the phagosome Al-Younes et al, 1999
  257. TGFB1 C. pneumoniae-infected human bronchial epithelial cell showed enhanced secretion of VEGF, TGF-beta, and TIMP-1 Park et al, 2010
  258. TICAM1 – toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 (Trif) : C. pneumoniae facilitates foam cell formation via activation of both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent (i.e.TICAM1-dependent and IRF3-dependent) pathways downstream of TLR2 and TLR4 Chen et al, 2008
  259. TIMP1 TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1: C.pneumoniae-infected human bronchial epithelial cell showed enhanced secretion of VEGF, TGF-beta, and TIMP-1 Park et al, 2010
  260. TLR2 toll-like receptor 2 recognises C.Pneumoniae on dendritic cells Prebeck et al, 2001
  261. TLR3 C.pneumoniae initiates signalling via TLR3 and MAP Kinase(s) Wang et al, 2013
  262. TLR4 toll-like receptor 4 recognises C.Pneumoniae on vascular smooth muscle cells Sasu et al, 2001
    1. C.Pneumoniae protein phospholipase D is a TLR4 agonist inducing the expression of IL23A, IL6, IL1B, TGFß, and CCL20 in monocytes, CXCL9, CCL20, CCL4, CCL2, ICAM1, and VCAM1 in HUVECs. Plaque-derived T cells produce IL-17 in response to CpPLD Benagiano et al, 2012
  263. TMBIM4 transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 4: knock-down in infected A549 cells increases number of C. pneumoniae genomes and bacterial growth Markkula et al, 2012
  264. TP53 tumor protein p53:PCNA Expression increased by infection in Human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, associated with decreased nuclear binding of p53 Selzman et al, 2003.
  265. TNF restricts chlamydial growth via activation of IDO1 Njau et al, 2009
  266. TRAF3 TNF receptor-associated factor 3: degraded by the bacterium Wolf and Fields, 2013
  267. TRAF3IP2 TRAF3 interacting protein 2: binds to a secreted chlamydial protein, CP0236 Wolf et al, 2009
  268. TUBB Beta tubulin degraded by chlamydial CPAF Savijoki et al, 2008
  269. TXN Thioredoxin University of AArhus 2D database
  270. USF1 upstream transcription factor 1 degraded by the chlamydial protease CPAF Zhong et al, 2001
  271. UQCRC1 ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein I University of AArhus 2D database
  272. USP18 – ubiquitin specific peptidase 18: Upregulated by infection in mediastinal lymph node lymphocytes Kyläniemi et al, 2009
  273. VCAM1 Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promotes the transmigration of monocytes through human brain endothelial cells via upreculation of VCAM1 and ICAM1 on endothelial cells and of integrins ITGB1, ITGB2, and ITGAM on monocytes MacIntyre et al, 2003.
  274. VDR Vitamin D receptor Chlamydial infection is enhanced in VDR knockout mice He et al, 2013
  275. VEGFA vascular endothelial growth factor A involved in entry in human coronary artery endothelial cells Wang et al, 2010
  276. VIM Vimentin degraded by chlamydial CPAF Savijoki et al, 2008 and University of AArhus 2D database
  277. WARS tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase University of AArhus 2D database
  278. XIAP X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis Knockout sensitises mice to infection Prakash et al, 2010
  279. ZDHHC17 (HIP14) interacts with bacterial Cpj0783 Yanatori et al, 2015

Melatonin and serotonin inhibit chlamydial infection, not by effects on the bacterium itself, but via host receptors for these transmitters: buspirone (HTR1A partial agonist) and NAN190 (HTR1A and HTR1F agonist) partially decreased infection : Melatonin agonist IIK7 ( MTRN1A and MTNR1B agonist) and antagonist, luzindole, decreased chlamydial infection as effectively as melatonin Rahman et al, 2005 GPR50 dimerises with melatonin receptors

  • Chlamydia secrete a glycolipid exoantigen (GLXA) which binds to infected cells . Antibodies to GXLA and complement kill the infected cells Webley et al, 2004
  • C.Pneumoniae possesses an aromatic amino acid hydrolase, Cpn1046, that uses the hosts' phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan converting them to tyrosine, dihydroxyphenylalanine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan Abromaitis et al, 2009
High throughput experiments

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of monocytes in vitro stimulates innate and adaptive immune responses relevant to those in Alzheimer's disease Lim et al, 2014

Innate and adaptive immunity gene transcripts increased at 48 hours in Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected THP1 cells s CCL2 COLEC12 CYBB DEFB4 DMBT1 IFNB1 IL1F5 IL1F8 IL1RN IL6 IRAK2 NFKBIA NLRC4 PTAFR SERPINA1 TLR8 TNF

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promotes vascular smooth muscle cell migration through a Toll-like receptor 2-related signaling pathway Wang et al, 2013

Upregulated: BAIAP2 CCL20 CX3CL1 GREM2 ID1 ID2 MCM6 MCM7 NQO1 PCNA TLR2

Downregulated: AKAP12 ANXA1 CD55 DUSP1 EDN1 EGR1 ERRFI1 F3 FOS GJB2 LOC683626 NFIL3 PKIG PPAP2B PSAT1 RASL11B STMN2 TGFA TGFB3 THBD

pneumoniae and/or low density lipoprotein in five study models using differential display and real-time RT-PCR. Lim and Chow, 2006

Modified genes: ACTG1 ARPP19 BCL2A1 CDC27 CDC42EP3 CDK1 CTSH FLOT1 GPR6 IK IRS2 PHF20 RPL27A SLAMF8 UBAC1 UBE2T

A Systemic Network for Chlamydia pneumoniae Entry into Human Cells Wang et al, 2010

Genes involved in attachment and entry 55H1 ABL2 ADRB2 ALS2 ARL7 ATP2B1 AXUD1 BCL1O BCL2A1 BHLHB2 BMP2 BRE CCL20 CCL20 CCNL1 CEBPB CHMP18 CITED2 CSF2 CXCL1 CXCL2 CXCL3 CXCR7 DACH1 DDIT3 GPR137C DKK2 DSCR1 DUSP1 DUSP5 EFNA1 EGR1 EGR3 ELF1 ELL2 ERN1 F3 FGF5 FOS FOSB FOSL2 FREM1 FST GADD45B GATA2 GATA6 HBEGF HDAC9 HER3 HEY1 HIRA HIST2H2BE ICAM1 ID1 ID2B IL1A IL6 IL8 INHBA IRF1 IRF2BP2 ITGB2 JUNB KBTBD KITLG KLF10 KLF11 KLF4 KLF7 KLF9 LIF LIM53 LOC284454 LOC387763 M8X1 MAFF MAP3K8 METTL5 MMOX1 MPPE1 MYO10 NARG2 NEDD9 NFIL3 NFKB1 NFKBIA NR1D2 NR4A1 NR4A2 NR4A3 NUAK2 OFM PBEF1 PDE4B PDGFB PER1 PPP1R15A PRKD2 PTGS2 RARA RASD1 RND1 S100A10 SDC4 SELE SEMA4D SERPINE1 SERTAD3 SLC19A2 SLC25A25 SLC7A8 SMQD7 SNAI1 SNF1LK SOCS3 SPRY2 SPRY4 SQSTM1 ST3GAL6 TIFA TIPQRP TJP1 TNFAIP3 TRIM1 VCAM1 VEGF ZC3H12A ZFP38

< frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="border:0px" src="http://books.google.com/books?id=GHocqremTkAC&lpg=PA232&ots=cJKaIpPu2_&dq=c.pneumoniae%20host%20pathogen&pg=PA232&output=embed" width=500 height=500>cDNA array analysis of altered gene expression in human endothelial cells in response to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection Coombes and Mahony, 2001.

Upregulated BDNF CCL2 CXCL12 F2R FGF2 FPR3 GAP43 HBEGF IFNAR1 IGF1R IGFBP4 IL1B IL8 INHBA IRF1 PDAP1 PDGFB PDGFRA TNFAIP6

< frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="border:0px" src="http://books.google.com/books?id=GHocqremTkAC&lpg=PA232&ots=cJKaIpPu2_&dq=c.pneumoniae%20host%20pathogen&pg=PA232&output=embed" width=500 height=500>Infection of U937 Monocytic Cells with Chlamydia pneumoniae Induces Extensive Changes in Host Cell Gene Expression Virok et al, 2003

< frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="border:0px" src="http://books.google.com/books?id=GHocqremTkAC&lpg=PA232&ots=cJKaIpPu2_&dq=c.pneumoniae%20host%20pathogen&pg=PA232&output=embed" width=500 height=500>Upregulated: ADAM9 ANXA1 ANXA5 CCL1 CCL2 CCL3 CCL4 CCL8 CCR1 CCR8 CCRL2 CD44 CD58 CD82 CD83 CD86 CEBPB CREM CSF3 CXCL1 CXCL3 ELK3 EMP1 F5 FABP4 FCER2 FCGR2B GK GPER HBEGF HDAC2 IFNGR2 IL1B IL1RN IL4R IRF8 ITGAX JUNB MMP3 MMP10 MMP12 MMP3 MYB NCOA1 NFATC1 NFKBIA NPC1 NR3C1 PLAU PPBP RGS1 SCMH1 SERPINB7 SMARCD2 SRC TAF5 TANK TFE3 TM4SF1 TMEM2 TNF TNFAIP3 TNFAIP6 TNFSF7 ZNF9

< frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="border:0px" src="http://books.google.com/books?id=GHocqremTkAC&lpg=PA232&ots=cJKaIpPu2_&dq=c.pneumoniae%20host%20pathogen&pg=PA232&output=embed" width=500 height=500>Downregulated: ACAT2 CDC25B CDCA5 CDK2 EEF2 ERP29 FKBP1A HNRNPA1 HPRT1 HSP90AB1 ICSBP1 IMPDH2 KIF23 KIF2C LIG1 LMO2 MCM7 MGP MRPS35 MYB NPM1 NUTF2 PAICS PHB PLK PPAT PRKDC RAB32 RBBP4 RFC1 RNASE2 SCMH1 SNRPD1 SRRM1 TPR

Host cell responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae in gamma interferon-induced persistence overlap those of productive infection and are linked to genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, and metabolism.Eickhoff et al, 2007

Regulated at various time points: ASNS BNIP3 CA9 CTGF CTH CXCL11 CYR61 DACT1 DDX58 DEPTOR DKK1 EGR1 ETS2 FOSL1 FST FZD10 HERC5 HERPUD1 HEY1 HSPA1A HSPA1B IFI44 IFIT4 IL11 INSIG1 ISG15 ISG20 KRT17 LOX LYPD3 METTL7A MXRA5 NDRG1 NFIL3 OAS1 OASL PDLIM5 PHLDA1 PLK2 PPP1R3C PSPH PTGER4 PTPN13 RAI3 SLC1A4 SREBF1 STC2 TNFAIP3 TRIB3 VEGFA ZC3HAV1

Characterization and intracellular localization of putative Chlamydia pneumoniae effector proteins Müller et al, 2008

UP IFIT1 IFIT3 TTLL11Down EIF5 GLP2R

Host metabolism promotes growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a low oxygen environment Szaszák et al, 2013.

siRNA screen of genes affecting C.Pneumoniae survival in hypoxic conditions: AKR1A1 AKR1B1 ALDOA AP2A1 ARRB1 C12orf5 CAMK2A CAV1 CYB5R3 CYC1 DNM2 EPAS1 FBP1 FOXO3 G6PC G6PD GLUL GPD2 HIF1A HIF3A LDHA MAPK8 MSN PFKP PGK1 PI4KA PIK3CG PXN RAB5C SIRT1 SIRT3 SLC1A5 SOD1 SOD2 STAT3 VHL VIM

The effect of proatherogenic pathogens on adipose tissue transcriptome and fatty acid distribution in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice Hyvärinen et al, 2013

Differentially expressed genes in the inguinal AT transcriptome of chronic C. pneumoniae-infected mice

Upregulated C230075M21RIK EIF2AK2 FCRLS GPC3 IFIT3 OSR2
PPAP2B USP18

Downregulated 8430408G22RIK ACTR3 DDIT4 GM14121 Gm5277 Gm9143 GPX8 IGKV4-54 LOC665281 MOD1 RPS3A YWHAG

Differentially expressed genes in the epididymal AT transcriptome of combined chronic C. pneumoniae-infected mice

Upregulated AVPR1A C7 IGK-C LRRN1 SLC15A2

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of monocytes in vitro stimulates innate and adaptive immune responses relevant to those in Alzheimer’s disease Lim et al, 2014

Innate and adaptive immunity gene transcripts increased at 48 hours in Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn)-infected THP1 cells CCL2 COLEC12 CYBB DEFB4 DMBT1 IFNB1 IL1F5 IL1F8 IL1RN IL6 IRAK2 NFKBIA NLRC4 PTAFR SERPINA1 TLR8 TNF

Diseases associated with C. Pneumoniae.

Cross-reactive (auto)antibodies

  • Chlamydia pneumoniae (CPP) streptococcal M protein (STM6P) and milk butyrophilin (BTN). versus neuron-specific antigens (myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), ganglioside (GM1), sulfatide (SULF), chondroitin sulfate (CONSO4), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), alpha,beta-crystallin (alpha,beta-CRYS), neurofilament proteins (NAFP), tubulin ) in autism Vojdani et al, 2002

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Last update: May 15, 2017