Polygenic Pathways

Polygenic signalling pathways

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Alzheimer's disease



  • Convergence of genes implicated in Alzheimer's disease on the cerebral cholesterol shuttle: APP, cholesterol, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis.Neurochem Int 2007
  • APOE, CR1 Clusterin, PICALM and herpes simplex
  • Alzheimer's disease plaques and tangles: Cemeteries of a Pyrrhic victory of the immune defence network against herpes simplex infection at the expense of complement and inflammation-mediated neuronal destructionNeurochem Int 2011.
  • Alzheimer's disease: A pathogenetic autoimmune disorder caused by Herpes simplex in a gene-dependent manner. Int.J.Alz Dis, 2010
  • The fox and the rabbits, environmental variables and population genetics. 1: Replication problems in association studies and the untapped power of GWAS. 2: Vitamin A deficiency, herpes simplex reactivation and other causes of Alzheimer’s disease ISRN Neurology, 2011
  • Alzheimer’s disease: APP, gamma secretase, APOE, CLU, CR1, PICALM, ABCA7, BIN1, CD2AP, CD33, EPHA1 and MS4A2, and their relationships with herpes simplex , C.Pneumoniae, other suspect pathogens and the immune system: Int.J.Alz.Dis, 2011

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

ADHD genes and risk factors ADHD KEGG pathways

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia genes and risk factors Updates Kegg pathway analysis of anorexia genes



Bipolar disorder

  • Multiple genes and factors associated with bipolar disorder converge on growth factor and stress activated kinase pathways controlling translation initiation: implications for oligodendrocyte viability.Neurochem Int, 2007
  • EIF2B and oligodendrocyte survival: where nature and nurture meet in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia? Schiz Bull, 2007

Childhood obesity

Childhood obesity genes, risk factors and KEGG pathways Updates Kegg pathway analysis of childhood obesity genes

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Chronic fatigue genes and risk factors Updates Chronic fatigue genes: KEGG pathways

Cystic fibrosis

  • Pathogen and autoantigen homologous regions within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein suggest an autoimmune treatable component of cystic fibrosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011


Unipolar depresssion genes and risk factors KEGG pathways of depression susceptibility genes

Huntington's disease

KEGG pathways traced out by the Huntington's disease HTT Huntingtin interactome  

Multiple sclerosis

Parkinson's disease

KEGG pathway analysis of Parkinson's disease genes


  • Schizophrenia susceptibility genes converge on interlinked pathways related to glutamatergic transmission and long-term potentiation, oxidative stress and oligodendrocyte viability.Schiz Res, 2006
  • Schizophrenia susceptibility genes directly implicated in the life cycles of pathogens: cytomegalovirus, influenza, herpes simplex, rubella, and Toxoplasma gondii.Schiz Bull, 2007
  • Schizophrenia: A pathogenetic autoimmune disease caused by viruses and pathogens and dependent on genes.J.Pathogens, 2011
  • Gliadin antibodies as causative agents in schizophrenia ?
Borna virus

Host/pathogen interactome Bornavirus

Kegg pathway analysis of the Bornavirus interactome


Herpes simplex

Susceptibility genes are enriched in those of the herpes simplex (HSV-1) / host interactome in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Pathogens and disease 2013


Extensive viral mimicry of 22 AIDS related autoantigens by HIV-1 proteins and pathway analysis of 561 viral/human homologues suggest an initial treatable autoimmune component of AIDS.FEMS Imm Med Microbiol, 2011

Vaccinia and other viruses with available vaccines show marked homology with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein: The prospect of using existing vaccines to stem the AIDS pandemic.Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2011 Aug 19. [Epub ahead of print]


Helicobacter Pylori

Host/pathogen interactions Updates Interactome Kegg pathway analysis
Toxoplasma Gondii

Host pathogen interactome : KEGG pathway interactome analysis

Toxoplasmosis and Polygenic Disease Susceptibility Genes: Extensive Toxoplasma gondii Host/Pathogen Interactome Enrichment in Nine Psychiatric or Neurological Disorders. J.Pathogens, 2013

Borrelia Burgdorferi Host Pathogen interactome KEGG pathways

The microbiome and probiotics in health and disease

  • Viruses, bacteria and other pathogens have been implicated in many human diseases including Alzheimer's and atherosclerosis, autism , depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, type 1 diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and many others, and can cause numerous cancers.In some cases there are "good viruses or bacteria" and characterisation of the microbiome in health and disease by the Human microbiome project is helping to define these. Some have already been used to good effect and the use of probiotics or even helminth infection as therapy is a burgeoning field.
  • Some of the pathogens implicated are listed here

Other KEGG Signalling networks from GWAS and other studies and Interactomes Updates

Viral integration into the human genome

See this set of papers and Trost et al, 2011 and Nature precedings

BLAST files illustrating this phenomenon

Images of viral integration into the human genome

The viral constitution of DISC1

Examples of mechanisms of action


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Throughout this site there are links to Entrez Gene and Pubmed (a service of the National Library of Medicine that includes over 16 million citations from MEDLINE a nd other life science journals for biomedical articles back to the 1950s. PubMed includes links to full text articles and other related resources) See disclaimer and copyright, as well as to OMIM(Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD) and National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine (Bethesda, MD). Genecards data are with the permission of GeneCards.org. BIOCARTA pathway links are provided for some genes (see Terms and conditions) and Disclaimer. BioGrid links are from the Ontario Cancer Institute, Canada Stark et al, 2006.

Authored by Chris Carter: B.Sc (Zoology), M.Sc (Pharmacology), PhD (Pharmacology) Published Papers...........LinkedIn Profile Email:

Last modified March 29, 2016